The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database Extinct Mammals: Marsupials: Thylacinus cynocephalus

Scientific Name: Thylacinus cynocephalus

Species Authority: Harris, 1808:174

Synonym/s: Didelphis cynocephala Harris, 1808:174 (original combination); Didelphis cynocephalus; Thylacinus Harrisii Temminck, 1824; Dasyurus leucocephalus Grant, 1831; Thylacinus striatus Warlow, 1833; Thylacinus communis Anon, 1859; Thylacinus breviceps Krefft, 1868:296; Thylacinus spelaeus Owen, 1845; Thylacinus major Owen, 1877; Thylacinus rostralis De Vis, 1894; Paracyon cynocephalus; Dasyurus leucocephalus Grant (year?); Bidelphus cynocephala Harris, 1808:174 [orthographic error; Lord & Scott, 1924:264]

Common Name: Thylacinus, Tasmanian tiger, Tiger-wolf, Greyhound-tiger, Bulldog-tiger (Krefft, 1868 viz. T. breviceps), Short-headed thylacine (Krefft, 1871 viz. T. breviceps); Dog-headed thylacine (used by Krefft, 1871), "The New Holland Dog" (as T. communis; Anon., 1859); for a complete list refer to (Guiler & Godard, 1998:15)

Locality: Australia (including Tasmania) and New Guinea

Last Record: 3290±49 years BP (Mainland Australia) (White et al., 2018); 3,030yBP (source); August 1931 (wild) (Thylacine Museum website) 1933 (wild) (Pearse, 1976); 7 September 1936 (captivity) (Guiler, 1985); post-1936 (unconfirmed reports)

IUCN status: Extinct

TSE forum thread:

International Collections

The Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard, has three specimens:

MCZ 6014 (mounted skeleton; sex unspecified)
MCZ 6349 (mounted skin; sex unspecified)
MCZ 36797 (most elements present; sex unspecified)

University of California Museum of Paleontology

UCMP 45183 (Dawson, 1985:65)

National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

USNM 125345 (skin, adult male; son of USNM 124662/49723; same individual as 49724 died at Washington Zoo in 1905) (Miller et al., 2009:supplement)
USNM 49724 (skull, adult male; son of USNM 124662/49723; same individual as 125345; died at Washington Zoo in 1905) (Miller et al., 2009:supplement; Senter & Moch, 2015)
USNM 155387 (Senter & Moch, 2015)
USNM 238801 (Senter & Moch, 2015)
USNM 124662 (skin, adult female which died at Washington Zoo in 1904; from same individual as 49723; Miller et al., 2009:supplement)
USNM 49723 (skull, adult female which died at Washington Zoo in 1904; from same individual as 124662; Miller et al., 2009:supplement)
AMNH 160248 (van Deusen, 1963:280)
AMNH 77701 (van Deusen, 1963:280)
AMNH 35866 (Mittelbach & Crewdson, 2006)

Merseyside County Museums, Liverpool, have two specimens:

MCM 26.9.1910 (ss and limb bones) (Fisher, 1984:208)
MCM 1979.21 (sk) (Fisher, 1984:208)

The Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery, University of Glasgow, has two specimens:

GLAHM Z503 (mount, sex not specified, see here)
GLAHM Z1358 (skull, juvenile female, see here)

The Grant Museum of Zoology has 6 specimens:

Z87 (skull, lacking lower mandible; female)
Z88 (skull and mandible)
Z89 (mounted skeleton)
Z90 (skull and lower mandible)
Z1479 (skull and mandible; male)
Z1653 (four fluid body part specimens)

National Museums of Scotland

NMSZ 1980.67 (adult female) (McOrist et al., 1993)
NMSZ 1868.30.1 (adult male) (McOrist et al., 1993)

Swedish Museum of Natural History (Stockholm)

NRM 566599 (adult female, ethanol (from London Zoo; died in April 1893?); Flower, 1931(?); Miller et al., 2009:supplement)
NRM 592206 (mounted skin, adult male, collected in 1870) (Miller et al., 2009:supplement)

Zoology Museum, Ghent University (Belgium)

Has one specimen, probably from the collection of C. J. Temminck (Verschelde & Adriaens, n.d.).

Charles University, Prague

DZCU 8021.1 ["~1.5 week old individual from a litter of four preserved pouch young" (Newton et al., 2018b)]

The Natural History Museum, Dublin, has four thylacines (source)

NH:1917.25.1 (source)
NH:1917.25.1 (source)

Whanganui Regional Museum, New Zealand

The Whanganui Regional Museum, North Island, New Zealand has at least one specimen ([url=]source[/ur]).

Australian Collections

Australian Museum, Sydney

AMS P762 ["~12 week old preserved pouch young" (Newton et al., 2018b)]
AMS 1646
AM F18660 (Dawson, 1985:65)

National Museum Australia, Canberra

NMA 1984.0010.0706 (preserved pouch and scrotal sac) (Sleightholme, 2011:954)

Queensland Museum

QM F44643 ("I1")
QM F726 in part (Mackness et al. 2002:238; Louys & Price, 201X:21)
QM F3744 (Louys & Price, 201X:21)

South Australian Museum

SAM M665/001
SAM M922
SAM M1952-56
SAM M1959-60

Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart

TMAG A930 ["~9 week old preserved pouch young" (Newton et al., 2018b)]
TMAG A931 ["~5.25 week old individual from a litter of two preserved pouch young" (Newton et al., 2018b)]
TMAG A934 [non-thylacine dasyurid, misidentified; see (Newton et al., 2018a,b)] [thylacine jawbone pincushion]
TMAG P2008.33 [thylacine jawbone pincushion]

"Internal transfer: Emily Ferrar (Tasmania) thylacine jawbone pincushion, c.1900 Registration transferred from the TMAG Zoology Department P2008.33"


National Museum of Victoria, Melbourne (now Museums Victoria?)

NMV C5747
NMV C5748
NMV C5752 (alcohol-preserved skull)
NMV C5755 ["~4.5 week old individual from a litter of three preserved pouch young" (Newton et al., 2018b)]
NMV P187757

Western Australian Museum

WAM F6353
WAM F6358
WA M33 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:156)
WA M195 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:156)
WA M3318 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:156)
WA M17189 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:156)

The International Thylacine Specimen Database (ITSD)

The ITSD is a database of all known preserved thylacine specimens (subfossils are not included at present) held in museum collections around the world; and in 9 further instances, in private collections as well. The latest, revised edition (i.e. 5th) of the database is available as a CD (as were the others); however, they are only available to scientists and thus the public is deprived of much valuable information. But a basic breakdown of the database can be found online. A sixth revision is planned for 2017 (Sleightholme & Campbell, In Press).

Attacks on Humans

See also (Paddle, 2000:92)

"A curious circumstance happened at Mr. Blinkworth's, Jerusalem, the other day. A native tiger, as it is called, boldly entered his cottage, where his family was assembled, and seized one of the little children by the hair, but fortunately missed its bite. Mr. Blinkworth who was confined to the house with a lame hand, alertly seized the animal by the tail and dashing it on the ground speedily killed it."

(Source: Hobart Town Courier, Saturday, 17 April, 1830)

The Scottsdale North-Eastern Advertiser reported an attack on a Miss Priscilla Murray by a one-eyed Thylacine in 1900 (Smith, 1982:249).

The Sydney Morning Herald (22 May, 1872) reported that a Mr James Jones was approached by a tiger coming out of the scrub (quoted by Whitley, 1973).

Palaeontological records:

Kangaroo Island, South Australia

135.4 ± 5.9 kya (Boar Beach locality), fossilized footprints [Camens et al., 2017]
≥ 28.2±2.7 kya (Rocky River homestead locality), osteological specimen [Wells et al., 2006]
14.25-13.8 kya (Kelly Hill Cave K1-P2 L7E locality), osteologicalspecimen [Adams et al., 2016]

Modern records:

King Island, Tasmania

The species has been reported as absent from the island (Campbell, 1888:164; Emu Bay Times and North West and West Coast Advocate 24.ix.1898:3; Marshall & Hope, 1973).

Data Sets of Sightings

Smith (1981) and Rounsevell & Smith (1982) both dealt with sightings in Tasmania to 1978. The latter analysed 104 sightings during the period 1970-1979, and stated that 84 sightings had been reported during the period 1960-1969.

Heberle (2004) analysed 203 reported sightings from Western Australia between 1936 and 1998.

According to the Australian Rare Fauna Research Association (ARFRA), they had "some 3800 mainland sightings of an animal answering the description of the Tassie Tiger", as well as documentation of "predation, vocalisations and prints" in 2011, and so presumably closer to 3,900 today.

Murray McAllister provides anecdotes and reports sent to him by many different people who claim to have seen the thylacine:

Well-known Australian zoologist Gary Opit has recorded 64 possible thylacine sightings as a result of people calling in during his radio show:

A whole batch of reports have been officially released by the Tasmanian government:

The T.R.U. (Thylacine Research Unit) provides details of reports made directly to them:

Cryptozoologist Chris Rehberg, on his website WLMD (Where Light Meets Dark), has an archive of thylacine reports:

This is interesting:

"According to the original commentary for the DVD of the Howling 3 (2002-2007 edition, later versions lack the commentary) the director originally wanted a thylacine scene so made up a dog to resemble that animal. Before shooting, however, the animal escaped and several mainland thylacine sightings were the result.

It may be informative to find out the date and location of that movie[']s shooting to see if any reports date from that location and time. If so those reports can probably be eliminated."


"My Dad once told me (and my mother) that he had seen a live one at Healesville Sanctuary (Vic) when he was a boy, in the late 1920's or early 30's.

We were talking about this recently and she rang the Sanctuary and checked, and yes they admitted they did have a couple of Tigers in captivity there but they don't like to admit they actually had them!!!"



A Wilf Batty interview

An interview with Alison Reid

An Animal X series segment on cloning the thylacine:

An Animal X series episode containing a story about mainland thylacine sightings/encoutners:

Cloning the Tasmanian Tiger, a documentary about the work of Dr. Mike Archer and his team in trying to bring the Thylacine back to life.

The Monster Quest episode on the Tasmanian tiger, including interviews with Col Bailey and other "believers".

Murray McCalister, Victorian thylacines and headless 'roos, including eyewitness reports

An episode of The Big Country television series about Jeremy Griffith's search for the thylacine (1973):

The Animal X TV episode on the thylacine, narrated by the late Bill Kerr:

The only 19th century photograph of a living thylacine:

"Timid Devils and Ghost Tigers"

Robert Bagshaw's search for the thylacine

Reconstruction of the thylacine's running gait, contrast with the "Doyle footage":

Fictional web series (Out of the Shadows) concerning the Tasmanian tiger:

A children's program that fuses fact and fiction:

The brief segment on the thylacine, part of David Day's television program:

Below is an incomplete bibliography on the thylacine. The section on scientific papers is relatively complete except for the 19th century period, however the section on popular articles, especially newspaper stories, is far from complete. I have started compiling a list of thylacine articles available through Trove (see here), which will take some time to complete. In addition, many local newspapers occasionally carry stories of reports of the thylacine, which probably number in the thousands by now.

Original Scientific Description:

Harris, George Prideaux. (1808). Description of two new species of Didelphis from Van Diemen's Land. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 9(1): 174-178.

Other references:

Berry, Colin. (1997). The Tasmanian Tiger Trail. Wynyard, Tasmania: Self published. 14 pp.

Brodie, Jedediah F. et al. (2017). Crossing the (Wallace) line: local abundance and distribution of mammals across biogeographic barriers. Biotropica. DOI: 10.1111/btp.12485 [Abstract]

Camens, Aaron B., Carey, Stephen P. and Arnold, Lee J. (2017). Vertebrate trace fossils from the Late Pleistocene of Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Ichnos: A Journal for Plant and Animal Traces. [Abstract]

Jones, Neil. (2003). The Kenilworth dasyuroid: the Tasmanian Tiger has relatives spotted in Queensland. Kenilworth, Queensland: Self published. 16 pp.

Lindeen, Carol. (2007). Tasmanian tiger: Thylacine cynocephalus. Mankato, Minn.: Capstone Press.

Marks, Clive A. et al. (2017). Trends in anecdotal fox sightings in Tasmania accounted for by psychological factors. Conservation Biology. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12944

Morrell, Sascha. (2017). Thylacine. Meanjin 76(1): 189. [Abstract]

Pyers, Greg. (2007). Finding Out About Thylacines. Port Melbourne, Victoria: Echidna Books. 32 pp.

Ackman, Phil. (1976). Wild dog pack could be 'extinct' native tigers. Sunday Telegraph, 8 August, p. 5.

Australian Geographic. (Due October, 2017). Australia Gone Wild. Sydney: Australian Geographic. [Available from Andrew Isles NHB]

Haygarth, Nic. (2017). The myth of the dedicated thylacine hunter: Stockman-hunter culture and the decline of the thylacine (Tasmanian tiger) in Tasmania during the late Nineteenth and early Twentieth centuries. Papers and Proceedings: Tasmanian Historical Research Association 64(2): 30-45. [Abstract]

The Wonder Book of Empire, p. 135. (

Hoare, Philip. (2014). The Sea Inside. London: Harper Collins Publishers.

Smith, Vivian. (1956). The Other Meaning. Publisher? [a book of poetry, which includes a poem on the thylacine]

Williams, Michael "Mike". (2014). The Truth About the Nullarbor Thylacine, pp. 129-140. In: Lang, Rebecca (ed.). The Tasmanian Tiger: Extinct or Extant? Hazelbrook, NSW: Strange Nation Publishing. 186 pp.

Clark, Jerome. (2013). Unexplained!: Strange Sightings, Incredible Occurrences, and Puzzling Physical Phenomena, third edition. Canton, Michigan: Visible Ink Press. [chapter title: Thylacines, pp. 198-208]

Strahan, Ronald. (1986). Photographic memory (letter to the editor). New Scientist, 26 June, p. 82.

The Sydney Morning Herald, 29 July, 1986, "Colour Photos of Tasmanian Tiger Doubted" [contains an interview with Athol Douglas; fide (Williams, 2014:136)]

Carlson, Colin J., Bond, Alexander, L. and Burgio, Kevin R. (2018). Estimating the extinction date of the thylacine with mixed certainty data. Conservation Biology 32(2): 477-483.

Archer, Michael "Mike". (1978). Quaternary vertebrate faunas from the Texas Caves of southeastern Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 19(1): 61-109.

Tyler, Michael J. (1977). Pleistocene frogs from caves at Naracoorte, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 101(3): 85-89. [Abstract]

G. J. Prideaux. 2004. Systematics and evolution of the sthenurine kangaroos. In S. W. Awramik, A. Barnosky, J. A. Doyle, M. L. Droser, P. M. Sadler (eds.), UC Publications in Geological Sciences, University of California Press 146:1-623.

J. H. Hope and H. E. Wilkinson. 1982. Warendja wakefieldi, a new genus of wombat (Maruspialia , Vombatidae) from Pleistocene sediments in McEacherns Cave, western Victoria. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria 43:109-120.

D. Merrilees. 1973. Fossiliferous deposits at Lake Tandou, New South Wales, Australia. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria 34:177-182.

R. E. Molnar, L. S. Hall, and J. H. Mahoney. 1984. New fossil localities for Macroderma Miller, 1906 (Chiroptera, Megadermatidae) in New South Wales and its past and present distribution in Australia. Australian Mammalogy 7(1-2): 63-73.

R. A. Fraser and R. T. Wells. 2006. Palaeontological excavation and taphonomic investigation of the late Pleistocene fossil deposit in Grant Hall, Victoria Fossil Cave, Naracoorte, South Australia. Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology 30(S1): 147-161.

Le Guellec-Minel, Anne. (2018). The Tasmanian Tiger: From Extinction to Identity Myth in White Australian Society and Fiction, pp. 67-83. In: Dodeman, André and Raimbault, Élodie (eds.). Literary Location and Dislocation of Myth in the Post/Colonial Anglophone World. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV.

Mooney, Nick. (2016). Thylacine; the Improbable Tiger. Capeia: 20160907.002.

Sleightholme, Stephen R. and Campbell, Cameron R. (In Press, 2017). The International Thylacine Specimen Database (6th Revision - Project Summary & Final Report). Australian Zoologist. [Abstract]

Dando, W. P. (c.1920). More Wild Animals & The Camera. Jarrold & Sons. [contains a photograph of the thylacine]

Woolley, P. A. (1987). The seminiferous tubules, rete testis and efferent ducts in didelphid, caenolestid and microbiotheriid marsupials, pp. 217-227. In: Archer, Michael (ed.). Possums and Opossums: Studies in Evolution. Sydney, N.S.W.: Surrey Beatty & Sons / Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales.

Puxley, W. L. (1949). Strayed Among Lonely Islands. London: Williams & Norgate.

Block, Erik. (2017). The History of the Thylacine in Captivity. Zoo Grapevine & International Zoo News 44: 29-33.

Chapple, Peter. (2001). The Quest for the Thylacine, pp. 75-81. In: Cropper, Paul (ed.). Myths & Monsters 2001 Conference Papers. Unpublished.

Anonymous. (2001). The Mainland Thylacine: An overview, pp. 82-83. In: Cropper, Paul (ed.). Myths & Monsters 2001 Conference Papers. Unpublished.

White, Lauren C., Mitchell, Kieren J. and Austin, Jeremy J. (2018). Ancient mitochondrial genomes reveal the demographic history and phylogeography of the extinct, enigmatic thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus). Journal of Biogeography 45(1): 1-13.

Kealy, S. and Beck, R. M. D. (In Press, 2017). Total evidence phylogeny and evolutionary timescale for Australian faunivorous marsupials (Dasyuromorphia). BMC Evolutionary Biology. [Abstract]

Turnbull, Paul. (2017). Science, Museums and Collecting the Indigenous Dead in Colonial Australia (Palgrave Studies in Pacific History book series). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. [chapter 2: Skeletal Collecting Before Darwin, pp. 71-96]

Thorn, Kailah M. et al. (2017). Fossil mammals of Caladenia Cave, northern Swan Coastal Plain, south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 32: 217-236.

Feigin, Charles Y. et al. (2017). Genome of the Tasmanian tiger provides insights into the evolution and demography of an extinct marsupial carnivore. Nature Ecology & Evolution. doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0417-y

White, Lauren C., Saltré, Frédérik, Bradshaw, Corey J. A. and Austin, Jeremy J. (2018). High-quality fossil dates support a synchronous, Late Holocene extinction of devils and thylacines in mainland Australia. Biology Letters 14: 20170642.

Dunnet, G. M. and Mardon, D. K. (1974). A monograph of Australian fleas (Siphonaptera). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series No. 30: 1-273, 366 illus., maps. [volume 22?] [Uropsylla tasmanica recorded from the thylacine]

Barnett, Ross and Lorenzen, Eline. (2018). Thylacine tales. Nature Ecology & Evolution 2: 7-8.

Smith, G. Elliot. (1902). On a peculiarity of the cerebral commissures in certain Marsupialia, not hitherto recognised as a distinctive feature or the Diprotodontia. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 70: 226-231.

Parnaby, Harry, Ingleby, Sandy and Divljan, Anja. (2017). Type specimens of non-fossil mammals in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Records of the Australian Museum 69(5): 277-420.

Jackson, S. M., and C. P. Groves. 2015. Taxonomy of Australian Mammals. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing. 529 pp.

Newton, Axel H., Spoutil F, Prochazka J, Black JR, Medlock K, Paddle RN, Knitlova M, Hipsley CA, Pask AJ. (2018a). Letting the ‘cat’ out of the bag: pouch young development of the extinct Tasmanian tiger revealed by X-ray computed tomography. Royal Society Open Science 5(2): 171914.

Newton AH, Spoutil F, Prochazka J, Black JR, Medlock K, Paddle RN, Knitlova M, Hipsley CA, Pask AJ (2018b) Data from: Letting the “cat” out of the bag: pouch young development of the extinct Tasmanian tiger revealed by X-ray computed tomography. Dryad Digital Repository.

Anonymous. (1859). "Genus Thylacinus, Temm.", p. 147. In: Anonymous. Descriptive Catalogue of the Specimens of Natural History in Spirit Contained in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Vertebrata: Pisces, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia. London: Taylor and Francis.

Stephenson, N. G. (1963). Growth gradients among fossil monotremes and marsupials. Palaeontology 6(4): 615-624.

Brandl, E. J. (1973). Australian Aboriginal paintings in western and central Arnhem Land. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra. [rock art depictions of thylacines]

Flannery, Timothy, Kendall, Paula and Wynn-Moylan, Karen. (1990). Australia's Vanishing Mammals: Endangered and Extinct Native Species. Sydney: Reader's Digest Press. 192 pp.

Anonymous. (1966). Thylacine. IUCN Bulletin New Series 20: 4.

Anonymous. (1978). Thylacine. Mammals No. 9. In Australian Endangered Species. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Anonymous. (1979). Submission to CITES Secretariat Unpublished. 4 pp. [cited by (Thornback & Jenkins, 1982:91)]

IUCN. (1972). Thylacine. Sheet Code 2.14.11. Red Data Book. Vol. I, Mammalia. Switzerland: IUCN.

WWF-Australia. (1981). Project progress. Project 3: the Thylacine quest. WWF-Australia Newsletter 6: 4.

Clarkson C et al (2017) Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago. Nature 547:306–310. [fig. 2, an "impacted molar"; however, "this is [actually] a fragment of the maxillary, not the dentary" (McMenamin, 2018) [Zealanditherians. In: Deep Time Analysis, pp 215-237]

Boyce, (Peter) James. (2006). Canine revolution: The social and environmental impact of the introduction of the dog to Tasmania. Environment History 11(1): 102-129.

Meredith, Peter. (2017). An endless quest. Australian Geographic 138(May-June): 74-87.

Rehberg, Chris. (2009). Gonzales-Sitges Thylacinus. Der Kryptozoologie-Report 7: 31-35.

Frenz, Lothar. (2000). Riesenkraken und Tigerwölfe. [relevant citation?]

Rehberg, Chris. (2007). In Search of Rare Carnivorous Marsupials: An Examination of the Evidence for Their Survival, [33 pp.?]. In: Heinselmann, Craig (ed.). Elementum Bestia: Being an Examination of Unknown Animals of the Air, Earth, Fire and Water. CRYPTO. 265 pp.

Bürgin, Luc. (2006). Tasmanischer Tiger fotografiert. Mysteries 4: 8-10.

Miotk, Nikolai P. (2009). Thylacinus cynocephalus auf dem australischen Festland: Betrachtet aus naturgeschichtlicher und kryptozoologischer Perspektive. Der Kryptozoologie-Report 7: 5-16.

Banks, Peter B. and Hochuli, Dieter F. (2017). Extinction, de-extinction and conservation: a dangerous mix of ideas. Australian Zoologist 38(3): 390-394. [Abstract]

Hudon, Daniel (writer) and Behin, Elahe (illustrator). (2014, April 6th). Brief Eulogies for Lost Species. Paragraphiti. Retrieved from [accessed 21 April, 2018]

Peacock, David E., Fancourt, Bronwyn A., McDowell, Matthew C. and Abbott, Ian. (2018). Survival histories of marsupial carnivores on Australian continental shelf islands highlight climate change and Europeans as likely extirpation factors: implications for island predator restoration. Biodiversity and Conservation. [Abstract]

Adams, S. J., McDowell, M. C. and Prideaux, G. J. (2016). Understanding accumulation bias in the ecological interpretation of archaeological and paleontological sites on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 7: 715-729. [Abstract]

Campbell A (1888) Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria: Expedition to King Island, November, 1887 Vic Nat 4:129-164.

Marshall, L. & Hope, J. (1973) A reevaluation of Dasyurus bowlingi Spencer and Kershaw 1910 (Marsupialia, Dasyuridae) from King Island, Bass Strait. Proc Royal Soc Vic, 85, 225-236.

Joslin, Paul and Maryanka, Daphne. (1968). Endangered Mammals of the World: Report on Status and Action Treatment. IUCN Publications, New Series, Supplementary Paper No. 13: 34 pp.

Anonymous. (1964). A preliminary list of rare mammals including those believed to be rare but concerning which detailed information is still lacking. IUCN Bulletin 11(Special Supplement): 4 pp.

Scott, Peter (ed.). (1965). Section XIII. Preliminary List of Rare Mammals and Birds, pp. 155-237. In: The Launching of a New Ark. First Report of the President and Trustees of the World Wildlife Fund. An International Foundation for saving the world's wildlife and wild places 1961-1964. London: Collins.

Andrew, Deborah L. (2005). Ecology of the tiger quoll Dasyurus maculatus maculatus in coastal New South Wales. MSc thesis, School of Biological Sciences, University of Wollongong. [automatic download]

Allen, Blake. (2017). Constituting the Australian environment: the transition of political responsibility for the environment in Australia from state to federal government, 1974-1983. MA thesis, the College of Graduate Studies, University of British Columbia.

Quammen, David. (1997). The Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinction. New York: Touchstone. [p. 285]

Edmonds, Penny and Stark, Hannah. (2018a). Friday essay: on the trail of the London thylacines. The Conversation, The Conversation Media Group Ltd, Australia, 6 April 2018.

Edmonds, Penny and Stark, Hannah. (2018b). The hunt for London's thylacines shows a greater truth about Australian extinction. ABC News, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Australia, 6 April 2018. [reprint of (Edmonds & Stark, 2018a)]

Gray, John Edward. (1843). List of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum. London: The Trustees, British Museum. xxviii + 216 pp.

Lucas, Arthur Henry Shakespeare and Le Souëf, William Henry Dudley. (1909). The Animals of Australia: Mammals, Reptiles and Amphibians. Melbourne: Whitcombe and Tombs.

Kealy, Shimona and Beck, Robin. (2017). Total evidence phylogeny and evolutionarytimescale for Australian faunivorousmarsupials (Dasyuromorphia). BMC Evolutionary Biology 17: 240.

Chare, Nicholas. (2018). After the Thylacine: In Pursuit of Cinematic and Literary Improvised Encounters with the Extinct. Liminalities: A Journal of Performance Studies 14(1): 124-168.

Edmonds, P and Stark, H, The London thylacines: Interview with Melanie Tait, Evenings with Melanie Tait, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Hobart, Tasmania, 17 April 2018 (2018) [Media Interview]

Piveteau, J. (1961) Marsupialia. In: Traité de Paléontologie (J. Piveteau, éd.) Masson et Cie, Paris, 585-637.

VON STIEGLITZ, Karl. 1950. A Short History of Deloraine, With Some Notes on the Surrounding District. Karl von Stieglitz, Evandale. [p. 7 at least]

Archer, Michael. (1984c). Effects of humans on the Australian vertebrate fauna, pp. 151-161. In: Archer, M. and Clayton, G. (eds). Vertebrate zoogeography and evolution in Australasia (Animals in Space and Time). Carlisle, Western Australia: Hesperian Press.

Rounsevell, D. E., Taylor, R. J. and Hocking, G. J. (1991). Distribution records of native terrestrial mammals in Tasmania. Wildlife Research 18(6): 699-717. [Abstract] [relevant citation?]

Meredith, Louisa Anne ["Mrs. Charles Meredith"]. (1852). My Home in Tasmania, During A Residence Of Nine Years. London: John Murray.

Anonymous. (2001). Extinct for the time being. The Sydney Morning Herald, 24 November.

Author?. (2011). Tasmanian tiger's bark worse than its bite, study shows. The Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney, Australia), 1 September, p. 3.

Fleay-Thomson, Rosemary. (2007). Animals First : The Story of Pioneer Australian Conservationist and Zoologist Dr David Fleay. Southport, Queensland: Keeaira Press. 339 pp. [relevant citation?]

Grant, M. (1910). Zoological society bulletin (37th ed.). New York, NY: New York Zoological Society.

Gill, Anton and West, Alex. (2001). Extinct. Channel 4 Books. [pp. 212-213]

Gill, Edmund D. (1963). The Australian Aborigines and the Giant Extinct Marsupials. Australian Natural History 14(8): 263-266.

Goymer, Patrick. (2008). Exaggerating the resurrection. Nature Reviews Genetics 9(7): 502. [Abstract]

Brewer, Duncan. (2003). Tasmanian wolf, pp. 16[-?]. In: Mammals. Publisher? [Abstract]

D. R. H. (1994). Thylacine, pp. 1072[-?]. In: Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal, Vol. 2. [Abstract]

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Jones, Michael. (2015). [Review of Paper Tiger by Carol Freeman]. Melbourne Historical Journal 43(1): 140.

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Gunn, R.C. Letter from R.C. Gunn on Various Interesting Occurrences... Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania II (1854): 156-7.

Hornaday, William. Our Vanishing Wildlife. New York: De Capo Press, 1969.

Meredith, Louisa Anne. (1880). Tasmanian friends and foes, feathered, furred, and finned: a family chronicle of country life, natural history, and veritable adventure. Hobart Town: J. Walch & Sons. 259 pp.

Meredith, Louisa Anne. (1881). Tasmanian Friends and Foes: Feathered, Furred, and Finned. London: Marcus Ward. 259 pp.

Medlock K ‘What price extinction? The thylacine trade and the
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Medlock K ‘David Fleay hair analysis’ CNG Productions, Montreal,
Adelaide, 10 February 2009

Medlock K ‘Tigers and TMAG Directors’ Staff seminar, Rosny, 9
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Anonymous (1961) Invasion der Exoten im „Schwan“ – Stadt Goslar übernimmt die Sammlung Behrens/Seltene Kostbarkeiten. Goslarsche Zeitung, 29. November 1961.

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Schinz, Heinrich Rudolf. (1827). Naturgeschichte Abbildungen der Säugethiere: nach den neuesten Systemen zum gemeinnützigen Gebrauche entworfen, und mit Berücksichtigung für den Unterricht der Jugend bearbeitet. Zürich.

MCCORMACK, Rob (1986). Strange Intruder. Ashton Scholastic, Sydney.

McCallum, Hamish. (2012). Disease and the dynamics of extinction. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 367(1604): 2828-2839.

Jones, M. E. (2003). Convergence in ecomorphology and guildstructure among marsupial and placental carnivores, pp. 285-296. In: Jones, M., Dickman, C. and Archer, A. (eds.). Predators with Pouches: The Biology of Carnivorous Marsupials. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

Allard, Tess. (2018). The Thylacine. Pleiades: Literature in Context 38(2): 124-130. [Abstract]

References A-D
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Bowdler, Sandra. (1984). Hunter Hill, Hunter Island. Terra Australis 8: xv + 148 pp. [a single thylacine molar tooth was found, dated to roughly 15,400 BP; still the only known record of the species from the Bass Strait islands as far as I am aware]

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Brown, Robert ("Bob"). (1973). Has the thylacine really vanished? Animals 15(9): 416-419.

Brown, Robert ("Bob"). (1983). Has the last thylacine gone to ground there hope for our tiger? Tasmanian Mail, 16 August, p. 8.

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Bryant, Sally and Squires, Tim. (2009). Animals of Tasmania: Wildlife of an Incredible Island. Quintus Publishing. 80 pp.

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Bulmer, S. E. (1966/76). The Prehistory of the New Guinea Highlands. Unpublished MA thesis, Auckland: University of Auckland. Microfiche edition produced 1977 with new introduction.

Bulmer, S. (1974). Working paper in Anthropology & Archaeology. Linguistics and Maori Studies No. 30, Archaeology. Unpublished Report, Department of Anthropology, University of Auckland.

Bulmer, Susan. (1979). Archaeological Evidence of Prehistoric Faunal Change in Highland Papua New Guinea. Unpublished paper to Australian and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science Congress, Section 25A. Auckland.

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Burbury, Alfred. (2000). Alfred Burbury Memories from the Chronicles of the Burbury Family. Oatlands District Historical Society Chronicle 1: 29. [ "when the dogs had gone [during the second half of the nineteenth century], native tigers took over, notably in the east and around Tooms Lake."]

Burbury, F. (1953). Letter to Eric Guiler, 1953.

Burrell, Harry. (1921). The Tasmanian Tiger or Wolf (photo). Australian Museum Magazine 1(3): 62.

Buttrose, Larry. (1987). Yowies and Thylacines Alive: One Man's Vision. The Living Australia Magazine 1987(May): [pagination?].

Calaby, J. H. (1983). Thylacine, 10: 52-53. Australian Encyclopaedia, 4th ed.

Calaby, J. H. and White, C. (1967). The Tasmanian Devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) in northern Australia in recent times. Aust. J. Sci. 49: 473-475. [relevant to Thylacinus?]

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Carlos, Colin J., Bond, Alexander L. and Burgio, Kevin R. (Preprint, 2017). Estimating the extinction date of the thylacine accounting for unconfirmed sightings. bioRxiv 123331. doi:

Case, Judd A. (1985). Differences in prey utilisation by Pleistocene marsupial carnivores, Thylacoleo carnifex (Thylacoleonidae) and Thylacinus cynocephalus (Thylacinidae). Australian Journal of Mammalogy 8(1-2): 45-52.

Chaloupka, George. (1975). Fallen emblem – or lingering star? EZ Review (1): 2-4. [possible rock art depictions of Thylacinus]

Chaloupka, George. (1977). Aspects of the chronology and schematisation of two prehistoric sites on the Arnhem Land Plateau. In P.J. Ucko (ed.), Form in indigenous art: schematisation in the art of Aboriginal Australia and prehistoric Europe, pp. 243-59. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.

Chaloupka, George. (1993). Journey in Time: The World’s Longest Continuing Art Tradition. Chatswood, NSW: Reed. [possible rock art depictions of Thylacinus]

Churcher, C.S. (1985). Dental functional morphology in the marsupial sabre-tooth Thylacosmilus atrox (Thylacosmilidae) compared to that of felid sabre-tooths. Australian Mammalogy 8: 201–220. [J. H. Calaby: "[has] information on Thylacinus"]

Cininas, Jazmina. (2008). Antipodean Bestiary: Reconstructions of Native Fauna and National Identity in the Work of Eleven Contemporary Australian Artists. PAN: Philosophy Activism Nature 5: 21-39. [automatic download]

Clark, Tim W.; Reading, Richard P.; Wallace, Richard L.; Wilson, Barbara A. (2002). If the Tasmanian Tiger Were Found, What Should We Do? An Interdisciplinary Guide to Endangered Species Recovery. Endangered Species Update 19(4): 194-200.

Claude, C. (1996). Der Beutelwolf. Thylacinus cynocephalus Harris, 1808. Leben und Sterben einer Tierart. Zurich: Zoologisches Museum der Universität Zürich.

Clegg, J., 1978. Pictures of striped animals: which ones are thylacines? Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 13(1): 19-29.

Clucas, E. (1978). Tracing the Decline of the Thylacine. Tasmaniana Library. 9 pp.

Cochrane, Peter. (undated). Bizarria: Tasmanian Tiger - Vampire Dog? Available at:

Colbron-Pearse, D. (1968). Tame tiger. Walkabout 1968(December): 8.

Coleman, R. (1976). There's a strange, strange beastie out there. Melbourne Herald, 20 March, p. 29.

Colgan, Don. (2002). Thylacine cloning is a long shot. Australasian Science 23(6): 15. [Abstract]

Colgan, Don and Archer, Michael. (2000). The Thylacine Project. Australasian Science 21(1): 21. ["Don Colgan and Mike Archer respond to criticisms of plans to clone the extinct Tasmanian tiger."]

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Corbett, L. K. (2001). The Dingo in Australia and Asia. Adelaide: J. B. Books.

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Cosgrove, Richard, Field, Judith, Garvey, Jillian, Brenner-Coltrain, Joan, Goede, Albert, Charles, Bethan, Wroe, Steve, Pike-Tay, Anne, Grün, Rainer, Aubert, Maxime, Lees, Wendy and O'Connell, James. (2010). Overdone overkill – the archaeological perspective on Tasmanian megafaunal extinctions. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 2486-2503.

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Cunningham, Daniel John. (1878a). The Nerves of the Fore-Limb of the Thylacine (Thylacinus Cynocephalus or Harrisii) and Cuscus (Phalangista Maculata). J. Anat. Physiol. 12(Pt 3): 427-433.

Cunningham, Daniel John. (1878b). The Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand of the Thylacine (Thylacinus Cynocephalus), Cuscus (Phalangista Maculata), and Phascogale (Phascogale Calura). J. Anat. Physiol. 12(Pt 3): 434–444.

Cunningham, Daniel John. (1881a). The Nerves of the Hind-Limb of the Thylacine (Thylacinus Harrisii or Cynocephalus) and Cuscus (Phalangista maculata). J. Anat. Physiol. 15(Pt 2): 265–277.

Cunningham, Daniel John. (1881). Report on some points of anatomy of the thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), cuscus (Phalanger maculata) and phascogale (Phascogale calura) collected during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876: with an account of the intrinsic muscles and nerves of the mammalian pes. Report on the Marsupialia. Voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger, Zoology 5(16): 1-192. Edinburgh: Printed by Neill and Co. for Her Majesty's Stationary Office. [includes 13 plates] [Available from Andrew Isles NHB]

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Dawson, Lyndall. (1985). Marsupial fossils from Wellington Caves, New South Wales; the historic and scientific significance of the collections in the Australia Museum, Sydney. Records of the Australian Museum 37(2): 55-69.

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de Groen, Frances. The thylacine hunter [online]. Quadrant, Vol. 24, No. 6, June 1980: 67.

de Moeller, O. (1998). On the trail of a Thylacine. West Australian, 5 January 1998, p. 7.

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De Vis, Charles W. (1894). A thylacine of the earlier nototherian period in Queensland. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (second series) 8: 443-447.

De Vos, Ricardo. (2007). Extinction Stories: Performing Absence(s), pp. 183-195: In: Simmons, L. and Armstrong, P. (eds.). Knowing Animals. Leiden: Brill.

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Dixon, Joan M. (1991). The Thylacine – Tasmania's tiger. Melbourne, Victoria: Museum of Victoria. 9 pp. ill., map.

Doherty, K. (1977). When we caught a tiger. In: N.W. Tasmania Short Stories and Articles. Boat Harbour: Tasmanian Fellowship of Australian Writers, North West Branch.

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Douglas, Athol M. (1986a). Tigers in Western Australia? New Scientist, 24 April, pp. 44-47.

Douglas, Athol M. (1986b). Thylacine lives? (letter to the editor). New Scientist, 24 July, 111(1518): 63.

Douglas, Athol M. (1990). The Thylacine: A Case for Current Existence on Mainland Australia. Cryptozoology/Cryptozoologie 9: 13-25.

Dwyer, P. D., 1982. Wildlife conservation and tradition in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Pp. 173-89 in Traditional Conservation in Papua New Guinea: Implications for Today ed by L. Morauta, J. Pernetta and W. Heaney. Institute of Apptied Social and Economic Research, Boroko, Papua New Guinea. [relevant citation?]

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Guiler, Eric Rowland. (1985). Thylacine: The tragedy of the Tasmanian Tiger. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Guiler, Eric Rowland. (1986). The Beaumaris Zoo in Hobart. Papers and Proceedings of the Tasmanian Historical Research Association 33(4): 121-171.

Guiler, Eric Rowland. (1991). The Tasmanian Tiger in Pictures. Hobart, Tasmania: St David's Park Publishing.

Guiler, Eric Rowland. (1993). The Tasmanian Tiger in Pictures, second edition. Hobart, Tasmania: St David's Park Publishing. 28 pp.

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Gunn, Ronald C. (1852b). Notes on natural history. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Diemen’s Land 2: 156-157.

Gunn, Ronald C. (1852c). Thylacinus cynocephalus - introduced alive into England. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land 2: 184.

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Hamilton-Arnold, Barbara (ed.). (1994). Letters and Papers of G.P. Harris 1803-1812 : Deputy Surveyor General of New South Wales at Sullivan Bay, Port Phillip, and Hobart Town, Van Diemen's Land. Sorrento, Victoria: Arden Press. 174 pp. [contains at least one sketch of the thylacine]

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Heráň I., 1968: Savci. Katalog k exposici zoologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze
[Mammals. Exhibition catalogue of the Department of Zoology, National Museum Prague]. –
Praha: Národní muzeum, 55 pp. [In Czech.]

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Nguyen, Vincent Lam. (2011). Exploration of Extinct Genomes Using Bioinformatics. Thesis?

Nicholls, Mary (ed.). (1977). The Diary of the Reverend Robert Knopwood, 1803-1838: First Chaplain of Van Diemen's Land. Hobart: Tasmanian Historical Research Association. 738 pp. [entry for 18 June 1805; entry for 20 August 1803 cited by (Paddle, 2000:5,101) seems in error]

Nicholson, Andrew. (2012). Phantom animal prowling Tasmania’s Huon Valley. Blog post on, posted 5 July 2012. ["During 1949, the locals of Mountain River...witnessed “a strange animal making queer noises” prowling the local area over many months."]

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Owen, Richard. (1842). Account of a Thylacinus, the great dog-headed opossum, one of the rarest and largest of the Marsupiate family o animals. Report of the Eleventh Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science; held at Plymouth in July 1841. London: John Murray.

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Paddle, Robert N. (1992). Last resting place of a thylacine? Nature 360(6401): 215. [From (Paddle, 2000:9): "my discovery of a 1902 photograph of a lair from which a thylacine was caught for Melbourne Zoo"]

Paddle, Robert N. (1993). Thylacines associated with the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 29(1-2): 97-101.

Paddle, Robert N. (1996). Mueller's magpies and marsupial wolves. Victorian Naturalist 113(4): 215-217. [relevant citation?]

Paddle, Robert N. (1997). Changing scientific perceptions of the Thylacine, or Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus). Ph.D. thesis. [Abstract]

Paddle, Robert. (2000). The Last Tasmanian Tiger: The History and Extinction of the Thylacine. Oakleigh, Victoria: Cambridge University Press. [Google Preview] [Available from Andrew Isles NHB]

Paddle, Robert N. (2007). Mutiny on the thylacine bounty. Paper presented at the second annual Animals and Society conference, Hobart, 6/7/2007. [summary]

Paddle, Robert. (2008). The most photographed of thylacines: Mary Roberts' Tyenna male - including a response to Freeman (2005) and a farewell to Laird (1968). Australian Zoologist 34(4): 459-470.

Paddle, Robert. (2012). The thylacine's last straw: epidemic disease in a recent mammalian extinction. Australian Zoologist 36(1): 75-92.

Paramanov, S. J. (1968). Is the Tasmanian Tiger (Thylacinus) extinct on the Australian mainland? Western Australian Naturalist 10(7): 171-172.

Park, Andy. (1985). Is this toothy relic still on the prowl in Tasmania’s wilds? Smithsonian magazine 16(5): 117-130. [Abstract]

Park, Andy. (1986). Tasmanian Tiger: Extinct or Merely Elusive? Australian Geographic 1(3): 66-83.

Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania. Threatened Species: Thylacine—Tasmanian Tiger. Hobart: Department of Tourism, Parks, Heritage and the Arts. 2003.

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Pask AJ, Behringer RR, Renfree MB. (2008). Resurrection of DNA Function In Vivo from an Extinct Genome. PLoS ONE 3(5): e2240. doi:10.1371/

Passmore, Abraham. (2002). Letter to The Mercury, 31 May 2002.

Paull, John. (2011). Environmental Management in Tasmania: Better off Dead?, pp. 153-168. In: Baldacchino, Godfrey and Niles, Daniel (eds.). Island Futures: Conservation and Development Across the Asia-Pacific Region (Global Environment Series). Tokyo, Japan: Springer.

Payne, Chris. (2008). The Continuing Strange Tale of the Thylacine- a Growth Function for a Small Population. Mathematics Today 44(4): 170-179. [p. 170-172?] [“Are there still Thylacines out there? Chris Payne takes a new mathematical approach to trying to determine whether this is at all likely, and if it is, when we might expect to get a definitive answer to the question.”] [mini review]

Peade, Barry (compiler) (ed.). (2011). Thylacine: Fact & Fiction. Deloraine, Tasmania: Striped Wolf Publishing. 98 pp. ill.

Pearse, R. J. (1976). Thylacines in Tasmania. Australian Mammal Society 3: 58.["Abstract of paper presented to the 18th General meeting, Launceston"]

Pearson, J. and De Bavay, J. M. (1953). The urogenital system of the Dasyurinae and Thylacininae (Marsupialia, Dasyuridae). Pap. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm. 87: 175-199.

Pettitt, Paul. (2003). Is this the infancy of art? Or the art of an infant? A possible Neanderthal face from La Roche-Cotard, France. Before Farming 2003(4): 1-3. [Abstract]

Philip, Justine and Garden, Don. (2016). Walking the Thylacine: Records of Indigenous Companion Animals in Australian Narrative and Photographic History. Society & Animals 24(1): 34-62. [Abstract]

Pickrell, John. (2007). Extinct thylacine may have lived until 1960s. Cosmos Magazine, 28 June.

Pink, Kerry G. (1962). Our first "tiger" for 30 years. Burnie Advocate, 1 December, p. 17, 19.

Pink, Kerry G. (1969). The "tiger" - one of the world's rarest animals. Burnie Advocate. [incomplete citation]

Pink, Kerry G. (1972). Dedicated men in search for tiger. Burnie Advocate, 17 March, p 3.

Pink, Kerry G. (1982). The West Coast Story: A History of Western Tasmania and Its Mining Fields. Burnie: Advocate Printers.

Pink, Kerry G. (1984). The Tasmanian West Coast Story. A History of Western Tasmania and Its Mining Fields. (revised second edition). Zeehan, Tasmania: West Coast Pioneers' Memorial Museum. 182 pp.

Pink, Kerry G. (1990). And Wealth for Toil: A History of the North-West and Western Tasmania, 1825-1900. Burnie: Advocate Marketing Services.

Pinkney, John. (2006). Riddle of the Tiger that Rose from Its Tomb: The Thylacine Puzzle, pp. 301-315. In: Great Australian Mysteries 2. Rowville, Victoria: Five Mile Press. [chapter 19]

Piper, K. J. 2007. Early Pleistocene mammals from the Nelson Bay Local Fauna, Portland, Victoria, Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology 27(2): 492-503.

Pizzey, Graham. (1968). Victim of the dingo. Melbourne Herald, Weekend Magazine, 25 May, p. 29.

Plane, Michael Dudley. (1976). The occurrence of Thylacinus in Tertiary rocks from Papua New Guinea. Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources Journal of Geology and Geophysics 1(1): 78-79.

Pledge, Neville S. (1974). Excavations in the Henschke's Quarry Cave, Naracoorte - a late Pleistocene fauna. Paper presented at the 15th General Meeting of the Australian Mammal Society, Monash University: Melbourner, May 1974.

Pledge, Neville S. (1990). The Upper Fossil Fauna of the Henschke Fossil Cave, Naracoorte, South Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum (Proceedings of the De Vis Symposium) 28(1): 247-262.

Plomley, N. J. B. (1966). Friendly Mission: the Journals of George Augustus Robinson 1829–1834. Hobart: Tasmanian Historical Research Association.

Plomley, N. J. B. (1976). A Word-list of the Tasmanian Aboriginal Languages. Launceston: Author in association with the Government of Tasmania.

Pocock, Reginald Innes. (1914). On the facial vibrissae of Mammalia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1914: 889-912.

Pocock, Reginald Innes. (1926). The external characters of Thylacinus, Sarcophilus and some related marsupials. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1926: 1037-1084.

Porter, J. K. 1979. Vertebrate remains from a stratified Holocene deposit in Skull Cave, WesternAustralia, and a review of their significance. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 61(4):109-117. [relevant citation?]

Price, Gilbert J. and Sobbe, I. H. (2005). Pleistocene palaeoecology and environmental change on the Darling Downs, southeastern Queensland, Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 51(1): 171-201. [subfossil remains from Darling Downs, Queensland]

Prideaux, G. J., R. G. Roberts, D. Megirian, K. E. Westaway, J. C. Hellstrom, and J. M. Olley. (2007a). Mammalian responses to Pleistocene climate change in southeastern Australia. Geology 35: 33-36.

Prideaux, G.J., J. A. Long, L. K. Ayliffe, J. C. Hellstrom, B. Pillans, W. E. Boles, M. N. Hutchinson, R. G. Roberts, M. L. Cupper, L. J. Arnold, P. D. Devine, and N. M. Warburton. (2007b). An arid-adapted middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from south-central Australia, Nature 445: 422-425.

Prowse, Thomas A. A., Johnson, Christopher N., Bradshaw, Corey James Alexander and Brook, Barry William. (2014) An ecological regime shift resulting from disrupted predator-prey interactions in Holocene Australia. Ecology 95: 693-702. [Abstract]

Prowse, Thomas A. A., Johnson, C. N., Lacy, R. C., Bradshaw, C. J. A., Pollak, J. P., Watts, M. J., Brook, B. W. (2013). No need for disease: testing extinction hypotheses for the thylacine using multi-species metamodels. Journal of Animal Ecology 82(2): 355-364.

Raethel, H. (1992). Bemerkenswertes über die beutelwölfe des Berliner Zoologischen Gartens. Bongo. Beiträge zur Tiergärtnerei und Jahresberichte aus dem Zoo Berlin 20: 61-64.

Ransom, B. H. (1905). Tapeworm cysts (Dithyridium cynocephali n.sp.) in the muscles of the Tasmanian Wolf (Thylacinus cynocephalus). Am. Microscop. Soc. Trans. 27: 31-32. [published in 1907?]

Reed, E. H. (2006). In Situ Taphonomic Investigation of Pleistocene Large Mammal Bone Deposits from The Ossuaries, Victoria Fossil Cave, Naracoorte, South Australia. Helictite 39(1): 5-15. [subfossil record]

Reed, E. H. and Bourne, S. J. (2000). Pleistocene fossil vertebrate sites of the south east region of South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 124: 61-90.

Renshaw, Graham. (1938). The Thylacine. Journal of the Society for the Preservation of the Fauna of the Empire 35: 47-49. [automatic download]

Rice, Paul, and Mayle, Peter (1981). As Dead as a Dodo. [incomplete citation]

Rich, T. H. 1991. Monotremes, placentals, and marsupials: their record in Australia and its biases, pp. 893-1070. In: P. Vickers-Rich, J. M. Monaghan, R. F. Baird, and T. H. Rich, eds. Vertebrate Palaeontology of Australasia. Pioneer Design Studio and Monash University, Melbourne.

Richards, Robert G. (2014). A Pardon for the Dingo. Science 343(6167): 142-143. [Abstract]

Rickard, Bob. (1987). The return of the tiger? Fortean Times 49: 5-7. [unseen by the present author; said to criticize the Kevin Cameron photos published in (Douglas, 1986)]

Ride, W. D. L. (1960). The fossil mammalian fauna of the Burramys parvus breccia from the Wombeyan Caves, New South Wales. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 43: 74-80.

Ride, W. D. L. (1964). A review of Australian fossil marsupials. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 47(4): 97-131.

Ride, W. D. L. (1970). A Guide to the Native Mammals of Australia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Roberts, M.G. 1909. Letter to A. Lowe, 19/11/1909. Wellington City Council Archives, Wellington, New Zealand.

Roberts, M.G. 1910. Letter to A. Lowe, 25/2/1910. Wellington City Council Archives, Wellington, New Zealand.

Roberts, M.G. 1911. Diary, 1/1/1910 – 4/7/1911. Privately held family papers, Mr. Gerald Roberts, Norwood, Tasmania.

Roberts, M.G. 1912. Diary, 1/7/1911 – 26/12/1912. Roberts collection, State Archives Office, Hobart.

Roberts, M.G. 1915. Letter to the Secretary, National Museum of Victoria, 11/3/1915. Correspondence files, archives of the Museum of Victoria.

Roberts, M.G. 1919. Letter to H.A. Longman, 27/3/1919. Archives collection, Queensland Museum, Brisbane.

Roberts, M.G. 1921a. Diary, 27/4/1913 – 15/9/1921. Privately held family papers, Mr. Gerald Roberts, Norwood, Tasmania.

Roberts, M.G. 1921b. Account Book, 1/1/1912 – 5/9/1921. Privately held family papers, Mr. Gerald Roberts, Norwood, Tasmania.

Roberts, M.G. 1921c. Visitors’ Book, 23/11/1904 – 15/11/1921. Roberts collection, State Archives Office, Hobart.

Robinson, Grant. (2014). The Wonthaggi Monster, Thylacines and Other Creatures, [pagination?] Great Gippsland Mysteries. Griffin Press. 160 pp. [Available from FDHS]

Robovský J., Anděra M. & Benda P., 2010: Revise catalogue of ceratomorph ungulates in the
collection of the National museum Prague and several other collections in the Czech Republic
(Perissodactyla: Rhinocerotidae, Tapiridae). – Lynx (n.s.) 41: 237-294.

Robovský, Jan, Sleightholme, Stephen R., Vohralík, Vladimír and Benda, Petr. (2015). Specimens of Thylacinus cynocephalus in collections of the Czech Republic (Mammalia: Thylacinidae). Journal of the National Museum (Prague), Natural History Series 184(2): 43-50.

Robson, S. K. and Young, W. G. (1990). A comparison of tooth microwear between an extinct marsupial predator, the Tasmanian tiger Thylacinus cynocephalus (Thylacynidae) and an extant scavenger, the Tasmanian devil Sarcophilus harrisii (Dasyuridae: Marsupialia). Australian Journal of Zoology 37(5): 575-589.

Rolland, Will. (1997). The Tasmanian Tiger: The Elusive Thylacine (Picture Roo Book Series). Kenthurst: Kangaroo Press.

Rolland, Will. (2002). (Rev. ed.). The Tasmanian Tiger: The Elusive Thylacine. Howrah, Tasmania: Book Agencies of Tasmania.

Rose, D. (2000). Tiger cloning project delayed by TV deal. The Mercury, 30 March, p. 7.

Rosenfeld, A. (1993). A review of the evidence for the emergence of rock art in Australia. In Sahul in Review: Pleistocene Archaeology in Australia, New Guinea and Island Melanesia M.A. Smith, M. Spriggs, & B. Fankhauser, eds., Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, ANU, 71-80.

Rounsevell, D. E. (1983). Thylacine. Thylacinus cynocephalus, pp. 82-83. In: Strahan, Ronald (ed.). The Australian Museum Complete Book of Australian Mammals. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.

Rounsevell, D. E. and Mooney, N. (1995). Thylacine, Thylacinus cynocephalus, pp. 164-165. In: Strahan, Ronald (ed.). The Mammals of Australia. Chatswood, N.S.W.: Reed Books. 756 pp.

Rounsevell, D. E. and Smith, S. J. (1982). Recent alleged sightings of the Thylacine (Marsupialia, Thylacinidae) in Tasmania, pp. 233-236. In: Archer, Michael (ed.). Carnivorous Marsupials, Volume 1. Sydney, N. S. W.: Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales.

Roux, J. (1772). Journal of the voyage made on the King's ship, the Mascarin, commanded by M. Marion Knight of the Royal and Military Order of St Louis Fireship Captain accompanied by the flute, the Marquis de Castries, commissioned to make a voyage to the island of Tahiti or Cythea and to expore the Southern Lands, thence proceeding to New Holland, to New Zealand etc .etc. (Maryse Duyker, Trans.). In E. Dyker (Ed.), The Discovery of Tasmania: journal extracts from the expeditions of Abel Janszoon Tasman and Marc-Joseph Marion Dufresne 1642 and 1772 (1992 ed., pp. 38-43). Hobart: St David's Park Publishing. [first known reported thylacine sighting by Europeans: “We have not seen any quadrupeds other than a little tiger [qu’un petit Tigre] which ran away
when we pursued the savages in the woods” (p. 42)]

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Smith, M. A. (1977). Devon Downs Reconsidered: An Exercise in Bioarchaeology. Unpublished B.A. (Hons) thesis, Australian National University. [report of Thylacinus cynocephalus from Ngaut Ngaut, South Australia]

Smith M.A. (1982). Devon Downs reconsidered: changes in site use at a lower Murray Valley rockshelter. Archaeology in Oceania, 17: 109-116.

Smith, Meredith J. (1972). Small fossil vertebrates from Victoria Cave, Naracoorte. South Australia. II. Peramelidae, Thylacinidae and Dasyuridae (Marsupialia). Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 96(3): 125-137.

Smith, Malcolm. (1982). Review of the Thylacine (Marsupialia, Thylacinidae), pp. 237-253. In: Carnivorous Marsupials. Archer, Michael (ed). R. Zool. Soc. N. S. W. Sydney.

Smith, Nicholas. (2012). The return of the living dead: unsettlement and the Tasmanian tiger. Journal of Australian Studies 36(3): 269-289. [Abstract]

Smith, S. J. (1981). The Tasmanian Tiger—1980: A report on an investigation of the current status of thylacine Thylacinus cynocephalus, funded by The World Wildlife Fund Australia. Wildlife Division Technical Report 81/1, National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hobart. 133 pp.

Spencer, C. (1944). Tasmanian Tiger reappears. Victorian Naturalist 61: 44.

Spoutil, F., Herdina, A. N., Prochazka, J., Sedlacek, R. and Knitlova, M. (2017). The Youngest Tasmanian Wolf: Scanned. Micro-CT User Meeting 2017, pp. 101-102.

Sprent, J. F. A. (1971). A new genus and species of ascaridoid nematode from the marsupial wolf (Thylacinus cynocephalus). Parasitology 63: 37-43. [abstract]

Sprent, J. F. A. (1972). Cotylascaris thylacini: a synonym of Ascaridia columbae. Parasitology 64: 331-332. [Abstract]

Spurling, Stephen. (1943). The Tasmanian Tiger or Marsupial Wolf: Thylacinus cynocephalus. Journal of the Bengal Natural History Society 18(2): 55-59. [at Stanley in 1902 witnessed cattlemen arrive at local Police station with two sacks containing around 20 thylacine heads; source: ]]

Squires, Nick. (2004). Scientists lobby for reserve for future Tasmanian tiger clone. The South China Morning Post, 26 March.

Stead, N. (2005). Bathurst Fossil and Mineral Museum: Thylacine display, the Somerville Collection. Artichoke 2(10): 78-83.

Stefen, Clara. (1999). Tooth enamel structure of some Australian carnivorous marsupials. Alcheringa 23(2): 111-132. [Abstract]

Stevenson, G. (1941). Thylacine papers, (21 Oct 1941), Queen Victoria Museum, Launceston.

Stevenson, R[obert?]. (1928). Letter to the editor: the Tasmanian wolf. Hobart Mercury, 20 July, p. 3.

Stevenson, Robert. (1937). The native tiger. Examiner, Wednesday 3 March, p. 1. [A farmer claims thylacine predation on his sheep]

Stewart, H.W. 1919. Aboriginalities. Bulletin, 11/11/1919: 20.

Stivens, D. (1973). The thylacine mystery. Animal Kingdom 76(3): 18-23.

Strachan, L. (1977). Tasmanian Tiger sighted. Australian, 23 August.

Stubbs, B. (2002). Tiger clone hope burning bright. The Mercury, 29 May, p. 3.

Sutton, Alice, Mountain, Mary-Jane, Aplin, Ken, Bulmer, Susan and Denham, Tim. (2009). Archaeozoological records for the highlands of New Guinea: a review of current evidence. Australian Archaeology 69: 41-58.

Svitil, Kathy A. (2003). Bringing the Tasmanian tiger back from the dead. Discover 24(10): 16.

Swainson, W. (1834). The dog-faced opossum. In: Murray, H., Wallace, W., Jameson, R., Hooker, W. J. and Swainson, W. An Encyclopædia of Geography... London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green and Longman.

Swainson, W. (1846). The dog-faced opossum. In: Murray, H., Wallace, W., Jameson, R., Hooker, W. J. and Swainson, W. An Encyclopædia of Geography... (revised edition). London: Longmans, Green and Co.

Tacon, Paul S. C.; Brennan, Wayne; Lamilami, Ronald. (2011). Changing Perspectives in Australian Archaeology, part XI. Rare and curious thylacine depictions from Wollemi National Park, New South Wales and Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. Technical Reports of the Australian Museum (online) 23(11): 165-174.

Taggert, Stewart “Will Tasmanian tiger clone work?”. 6102002.

Tasman, A. J. (1642). Journal of a Voyage to the Unknown Southland in the Year 1642 (Herman Duyker, Trans.). In E. Dyker (Ed.), The Discovery of Tasmania: journal extracts from the expeditions of Abel Janszoon Tasman and Marc-Joseph Marion Dufresne 1642 and 1772 (1992 ed., pp. 9-16). Hobart: St David's Park Publishing.

Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery. 1917. Museum Trustees Minute Book, 7/7/1913 – 20/6/1917. Archives collection, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart.

Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery. 1928. Museum Trustees Minute Book, 28/1/1918 – 2/4/1928. Archives collection, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart.

Tate, G. H. H. (1947). Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 56. On the anatomy and classification of the Dasyuridae (Marsupialia). Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 88: 101-155.

Taylor, Robert J. (1985). Identification of the hair of Tasmanian mammals. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 119: 69-82.

Tedford, Richard H. (1967). The fossil Macropodiae from Lake Menindee, New South Wales. Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci. 64: 1-156.

Temminck, C. J. (1824). Monographies de Mammalogie Tom. 1. Paris: Dufour. 60-65.

Terry, Edward "Ned" Vincent. (2005a). Tasmanian tiger: Thylacinus cynocephalus: alive & well. Dairy Plains, Tasmania: Self published. ix + 142 pp. [there seems to be a CD that supplements the book, which includes interviews conducted post-1980]

Terry, Edward "Ned" Vincent. (2005b). Identities and History of Tasmania's High Country. Dairy Plains, Tasmania: Self published. ix + 189 pp.

Terry, Edward "Ned" Vincent. (2007). Pioneers and Their Memories of Tasmania's High Country. Dairy Plains, Tasmania: Self published.

The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser. Vol. 3. (1966). Public Library of New South Wales and Angus and Robertson: Sydney. [According to J. H. Callaby: "Facsimile reproduction of vol. 3 of Australia's first newspaper; from March 3, 1805 to March 9, 1806. The issue for April 21, 1805 contains what is probably the first description of a thylacine"]

Thomas, Oldfield. (1888). Catalogue of the Marsupialia and Monotremata in the collection of the British Museum (Natural History). London: British Museum (Natural History). xiii + 401 pp.

Thomas, R. H.; Schaffner, W.; Wilson, A. C., and Pääbo, S. (1989). DNA phylogeny of the extinct marsupial wolf. Nature 340(6233): 465–467. [abstract]

Thomas, R. W. (1996). Tasmanian tiger photograph. South Australian Naturalist 71(1-2): 18-19.

Thompson, Angus. (2012). Author reveals ‘Tasmanian tiger' spotting. Herald Sun, 26 April. [story about author Col Bailey's 1995 sighting of a thylacine]

Thornback, Jane and Jenkins, Martin (compilers). (1982). The IUCN Mammal Red Data Book. Part 1: Threatened Mammalian Taxa of the Americas and the Australasian Zoogeographic Region (Excluding Cetacea). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 516 pp.

Tomes, John. (1849). On the Structure of the Dental Tissues of Marsupial Animals, and More Especially of the Enamel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 139: 403-412.

Triggs, Barbara. (1996). Tracks, Scats and Other Traces: A Field Guide to Australian Mammals. Oxford University Press. 352 pp.

Triggs, Barbara. (2004). Tracks, Scats and Other Traces: A Field Guide to Australian Mammals, revised edition. Oxford University Press. 348 or 352 pp.

Troughton, Ellis Le Geyt. (1941). Furred Animals of Australia. Sydney: Angus & Robertson.

Troughton, Ellis Le Geyt. (1948). Furred Animals of Australia, 3rd edition. Sydney: Angus & Robertson.

Troughton, Ellis Le Geyt. (1957). Furred Animals of Australia, 6th edition. Sydney: Angus & Robertson.

Troughton, Ellis Le Geyt. (1965). Furred Animals of Australia, 8th edition. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 376 pp. [According to J. H. Calaby: "Another important addition refers to the discovery in 1960 of the left half of the mandible of a thylacine at about 5,000 ft. in the Central Highlands of New Guinea"] [pp. 50-52]

Troughton, Elias Le Geyt. (1967). Furred Animals of Australia, 9th edition. Sydney: Angus & Robertson. ["There are reports of Australian [thylacines] eating echidnas (Troughton 1967)" (Mountain, 1991:8.7)]

Troughton, Ellis Le Geyt. (1973). Furred Animals of Australia, revised and abridged 9th edition. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. ["This revised and abridged edition first published in 1973"]

Tunbridge, Dorothy. (1991). The Story of the Flinders Ranges Mammals. Kenthurst: Kangaroo Press. 96 pp. [Available from Andrew Isles NHB]

Turner, Stephanie S. (2007). Open-Ended Stories: Extinction Narratives in Genome Time. Literature and Medicine 26(1): 55-82. [Abstract]

Turner, Stephanie S. (2009). Negotiating Nostalgia: The Rhetoricity of Thylacine Representation in Tasmanian Tourism. Society and Animals 17(2): 97-114.

Anonymous. (1980). Melbourne Sun, 2 January.

Anonymous. (1982). Advocate (Coffs Harbour, NSW), 9 March [January 1979 sighting by married couple at night]

Unknown author. (year?). Fortean Times 25: 36. [a pack of thylacine-like animals seen on the Vic/NSW border in 1977]

Unknown author. (year?). Thylacine Reports Persist After 50 years. ISC Newsletter 4(4): 1-5.

van Deusen, Hobart M. (1963). First New Guinea record of Thylacinus. Journal of Mammalogy 44(2): 279-280. ["In April 1960...Susan E. Bulmer excavated the left half of a mandible of Thylacinus"]

Van Huet, Sanja. (1999). The taphonomy of the Lancefield swamp megafaunal accumulation, Lancefield, Victoria. In: Baynes, Alexander and Long, John A. (eds.). Papers in vertebrate palaeontology. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 57: 331-340.

Varney, Denise. (2015). ‘Beauty Tigress Queen’: Staging the Thylacine in a Theatre of Species. Journal of the Association for the Study of Australian Literature 15(2): [pagination?].

Vaughan, H.M. 1914. An Australian Wander-Year. London: Martin Seeker.

Vaughan, H.M. 1946. The Tasmanian tiger. Country Life, 13/9/1946: 495-496.

Vechtmann, N. (1980). Hoe "uitgestorven" os Tasmaanse buidelwolf? Het Vrije Volk, 13 June.

Veitch, A. (1979). $1 million...if you catch a tiger. Australasian Post, 17 May, p. 10-11.

Verschelde, Dominick and Adriaens, Dominique. (n.d.). Past and current identity of the Zoology Museum of Ghent University. UMAC Journal University collections and university history and identity - Proc. of the 11th Conf. of the International Committee of ICOM for University Museums and Collections (UMAC), Lisbon, Portugal, 21st-25th Sept. 2011 Nathalie Nyst, Peter Stanbury, Cornelia Weber (Eds.) 5/2012/

Victoria, Museum Information Sheet No. 10283: Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus). Melbourne: Museum Victoria. 2005.

Vowles, Gill. (2014). Eye on the tiger. The Mercury, loose insert, pp. 14-15.

Wakefield, N. A. (1963a). Sub-fossils from Mount Hamilton, Victoria. Vict. Nat. 79: 323-30.

Wakefield N.A. (1963b). Mammal sub-fossils from near Portland, Victoria. Victorian Naturalist, 80:39-45.

Wakefield N.A. (1967). Preliminary report on McEachern's Cave, S.W. Victoria. Victorian Naturalist, 84:363-383.

Wallace, Lennie. (2004). Cape York Peninsula: A History of Unlauded Heroes 1845-2003. Rockhampton, Queensland: Central Queensland University Press. x + 166 p. ill., maps, ports. [contains information on the thylacine according to (Heath, 2014)]

Wart (pseudonym). (1919). Untitled letter to the editor. The Bulletin, 11 November, p. 20.

Waterhouse, G. R. (1841). Marsupialia, or Pouched Animals (Mammalia, vol. XI). In: Jardine, William (ser. ed.). The Naturalist's Library (vol. XXIV). Edinburgh: W.H. Lizars / London: Henry G. Bohn. xvi + 324 pp.

Watson, Catherine. (2012a). Tasmanian Tiger: The ghost of a chance. Casey Weekly Cranbourne, 5 August.

Watson, Catherine. (2012b). Tasmanian tiger: Glimpses of a beast. Casey Weekly Crabourne, 12 August. [Two new sightings reported as a result of a story the previous week]

Watts, D. (1993). Tasmanian Mammals. Revised edition. Kettering, Tasmania: Peregrine Press.

Wayback. (1911). An unwelcome visitor. Launceston Weekly Courier, 7 December, p. 34.

Webb, Emily. (2013). Yarra Ranges teacher Murray McAllister searching for Tasmanian tiger. Herald Sun, 21 August.

Webb, Joan. (2003). The Botanical Endeavour: Journey Towards a Flora of Australia. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Betty & Sons. 289 pp. ["There is a very detailed description by Paterson of the Tasmanian wolf ("accurate" according to John Oxley), including a comment on its stomach contents and the remark, "from its Interior construction it must be peculiarly quick of digestion"" (p.82)]

Webb, S. (1999). Thylacine cloning is "big time Dreamtime". Australasian Science 20(8): 19-21.

Weidensaul, Scott. (2002a). The Ghost with Trembling Wings. New York: North Point Press. [pp. 229-279]

Weidensaul, S. (2002b). Raising the Dead. Audubon Magazine 5: unpaginated. Available at:

Weidensaul, S. (2002c). The Death of a Species: How Tasmania's Marsupial Wolf Became Extinct. Audubon Magazine 5: unpaginated. Available at:

Weinzierl, Michael and Domack, Eugene. (2014). Applied Cryptozoology - Using Leeches to Locate the Thylacine. Tasmanian Geographic, online magazine, available at:

Welch, David M. (2015). Thy Thylacoleo is a thylacine. Australian Archaeology 80: 40-47. [Abstract]

Wells, R. T., R. Grün, J. Sullivan, M. S. Forbes, S. N. Dalgairns, E. A. Bestland, E. J. Rhodes, K. E.Walshe, N. A. Spooner, and S. Eggins. (2006). Late Pleistocene megafauna site at Black Creek Swamp, Flinders Chase National Park, Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Alcheringa Special Issue 1: 367-387.

Wells, Rod T., Moriarty, K. and Williams, D. L. G. (1984). The fossil vertebrate deposits of Victoria Fossil Cave Naracoorte: an introduction to the geology and fauna. The Australian Zoologist 21(4): 305-333.

Wemmer, Chris. (2002). Opportunities Lost: Zoos and the Marsupial That Tried To Be a Wolf. Zoo Biology 21: 1-4. [unsuccessful attempt at mating thylacines at the National Zoo, Washington, USA]

Wentworth, B. (2006). Reconstructing Growth Curves for the Thylacine (Thylacine Cynocephalus): Examining the Breeding Biology of an Extinct Marsupial. University of Tasmania.

Werdelin, L. (1986). Comparison of skull shape in marsupial and placental carnivores. Aust. J. Zool. 34(2): 109-117. [abstract]

West, [of Burnie]. ca1970. Handwritten Interview Notes. Thylacine Expeditionary Research Team Files, Queen Victoria Museum, Launceston.

West, John (ed.). (1852). The History of Tasmania, Volume 1. Launceston: Henry Dowling. 336 pp.

Whelan, Barbara. (2007). The extinction of the Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus): Quantifying the effects of competition, hunting, disease and habitat alteration. Thesis.

Whitely, G. P. (1973). I remember the thylacine. Koolewong 2(4): 10-12. [p. 10-11?]

Whitley, G.P. 1975. Thylacine Folder. Australian Museum Archives, Sydney.

Whitticker, Mark. (1997). Look! There's one. -Tasmanian tigers aren't extinct, they're everywhere say believers; but scientists say thylacine hunters are just chasing their tails. Australian. Magazine, 15-16 Nov 1997, p.12-18.

Wild, Mary. (1997). Tigers in the outback. E: The Environmental Magazine 8(3): 22. [wordcount: 405; unfortunately contains several factual errors]

Wilford, J. N. (1980). A new search for the rare tiger. Intern. Herald Tribute, 6 June.

Williams, Dominic L. G. (1980). Catalogue of Pleistocene vertebrate fossils and sites in South Australia. Proc. R. Soc. S. Aust. 104: 101-115. [relevant citation?]

Williams, Louise. (1997). Tassie tiger sighting claim in Irian Jaya. The Sydney Morning Herald, 15 April.

Williams, Michael "Mike" and Lang, Rebecca "Ruby". (2010). Australian Big Cats: An Unnatural History of Panthers. Hazelbrook, NSW: Strange Nation Publishing.

Wilson, A. ca1922w. Notes on the Tiger. Unpublished manuscript, Archie Wilson collection, Tasmanian Library, State Library of Tasmania, Hobart.

Woodburne, M. O. (1967). The Alcoota Fauna, central Australia. Bulletin of the Bureau of Mineral Resources Geology and Geophysics, Australia 87: 1-187.

Woodford, James. (1995). New bush sighting puts tiger hunter back in business. The Sydney Morning Herald, 30 January.

Woodford, James. (1999). Unleashing the thylacine. The Age, p. 1.

Woodford, James. (2000). Get a life, scientists tell extinct tiger. Sydney Morning Herald, Late ed., 5 May, p. 3.

Woodford, James. (2001). Extinction for the time being. Sydney Morning Herald, Weekend Edition, Spectrum, 24-25 November, p. 4-5.

Woods, A. (1977). Tiger, tiger in the night. Sydney Morning Herald, 25 August, p. 7.

Wright, Bruce J. (1968). Rock art of the Pilbara region, North-West Australia. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. Occasional Papers in Aboriginal Studies 11. 78 pp.

Wright, Bruce J. (1972). Rock engravings of striped marsupials: the Pilbara Region, Western Australia. Archaeology and Physical
Anthropology in Oceania 7(1): 15-23. [Abstract]

Wroe, Stephen. (2001). Maximucinus muirheadae, gen. et sp. nov. (Thylacinidae: Marsupialia), from the Miocene of Riversleigh, north–western Queensland, with estimates of body weights for fossil thylacinids. Australian Journal of Zoology 49: 603-614.

Wroe, Stephen and Attard, Marie. (2012). The thylacine myth. Australasian Science 33(5): 19-22.

Wroe, S., Clausen, P., McHenry, C., & Moreno, K. (2007). Finite element modeling of feeding behavior in the thylacine and wolf: A novel test for convergence. In JOURNAL OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY (Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 169A-169A).

Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip; McHenry, Colin; Moreno, Karen and Cunningham, Eleanor. (2007). Computer simulation of feeding behaviour in the thylacine and dingo as a novel test for convergence and niche overlap. Proc. R. Soc. B 274: 2819–2828.

Wroe, Stephen, Lowry, Michael B. and Anton, Mauricio. (2008). How to build a mammalian super-predator. Zoology 111: 196-203.

Wroe, Stephen, McHenry, Colin and Thomason, Jeffrey. (2005). Bite club: comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa. Proc. R. Soc. B 272(1563): 619-625. [Also available from Royal Society Proceedings B] [Supplementary data]

Wroe, Stephen and Milne, Nicholas. (2007). Convergence and remarkably consistent constraint in the evolution of carnivore skull shape. Evolution 61(5): 1251-1260.

Wroe, Stephen and Musser, A. (2001). The skull of Nimbacinus dicksoni (Thylacinidae: Marsupialia). Australian Journal of Zoology 49(5): 487-514. [Abstract]

Yates, Adam M. (2015). Thylacinus (Marsupialia: Thylacinidae) from the Mio-Pliocene boundary and the diversity of Late Neogene thylacinids in Australia. PeerJ 3: e931.

Yendall, D. (1982). Search for the thylacine. Wildlife (International), 24 May: 182-183.

Popular articles
Psychic Australian November 1976 [author? volume? pagination?]

Psychic Australian January 1977 [author? volume? pagination?]

Paranormal and Psychic Australian October 1977 [author? volume? pagination?]

Paranormal and Psychic Australian May 1978 [author? volume? pagination?]

Downes, Jonathan (ed.). (year?). Animals & Men - The Journal of the Centre for Fortean Zoology, Issue 19 [contains an article called "A British Thylacine?"]

The Imperial Natural History Picture Book New York & London: George Routledge and Sons, 1886, 64 pp.

Explorer's Journal, June 1980, USA: The Explorer's Club. ["Devils, Quolis, Dunnarts and Thylacines - a survey of Tasmanian mammals"]

Nature, Temporality and Environmental Management: Scandinavian and Australia Perspectives on Peoples and Landscapes. [p. 50-54]

Boogeymen. (aired 16 November 2015). Season 2, Episode 9: Beast of Buderim. "A strange creature believed to be related to the Tasmanian Tiger is spotlighted". source:

Mohr, M. (Producer). (2000, May 4). Bringing the Tasmanian tiger back to life. In ABC Online: 7.30 Report.

O‘Neill, P. (Producer/Director/Writer). (2002). End of extinction: Cloning of the Tasmanian tiger. Silver Spring, MD: Discovery Channel/TLC.

Wellington, C. (1996). The Tasmanian Tiger. The Definitive Documentary, (videotape). Hobart: Winning Post Productions.

Beyond the Jaws of Extinction, Chris Packham (host), originally aired 30 September 1998,

Phenomena Magazine. Secrets of Science - The Resurrection of the Tasmanian Tiger (Documentary, F 2005)

Other Multimedia:

The tragedy and myth of the Tasmanian Tiger. (2001). CD-ROM. Hobart, Tasmania: Roar Film & Screen Tasmania. ["Tells the story of the Tasmanian Tiger by drawing on primary source material and using science to understand the species and its behaviour." (source)]

Tasmanian tiger: Thylacinus cynocephalus: alive & well : new taped interviews of genuine sightings since 1980. (2004). Terry, Edward "Ned" Vincent. CD Audiobook. Dairy Plains, Tasmania: Self Published. [alternative title: "Tasmanian Tiger: Alive & Well"; published in 1999?]

Save the Tassie tiger! (2000). Developed by R3 Interactive. Adelaide, South Australia: EcoTigers Support Group. + 1 booklet (18 pp.).

Tasmanian tiger, Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition;Feb2013, p1

Websites [Murray McAllister's website] [research project] [Some of Col Bailey's "Tiger Tales" newspaper column articles] [photograph of Elias Churchill's hut, capturer of the last known wild thylacine in the Florentine Valley in 1933]

"In June 2009, the Cranbourne Journal (predecessor of the Casey Weekly) ran an article on a possible sighting of a Tasmanian tiger crossing Chevron Avenue, Cranbourne South, in 2001. Another Cranbourne resident claimed to have seen a tiger in Tooradin in 2000." (source) (Ubirr rock art site contains depiction of thylacine) [endocast]
["To mark the day, the Macleay Museum will bring out its thylacine (Tasmanian Tiger) specimen for one day only."]"The%20amazing%20Tasmanian%20Devil."

Fictional Accounts
NB: this section includes non-fiction reviews about fictional works.

Arnold, Dick. (1893). A Tasmanian Romance. Melbourne: Melville, Mullen & Slade. 203 pp. [chapter 7: "The Tiger-Wolf—..."]

Aronson, Linda. (year?). Naturally Rude. Puffin. [incomplete citation]

Atwood, M. Thylacine Ragout.” 2006. The Tent, 73-75. [relevant citation?]

Barzilai, Shuli. 2008. “Unfabulating a Fable, or Two Readings of ‘Thylacine Ragout.’” In Once upon a Time: Myth, Fairy Tales and Legends in Margaret Atwood’s Writings, ed. Sarah A. Appleton. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 127–50. [relevant citation?]

Black, Tony. (Due 1 October 2014). The Last Tiger. Cargo Publishing. 324 pp. [Available from Amazon] (

Campbell, Justine and Sarah Hamilton. (2013). They Saw a Thylacine. Currency Press. 66 pp. [Kindle edition] [a play]

Carey-Wells, Penny and Perndt, Diane. (2006). Pockets & corners : furry facts and thylacine fiction in the heartlands of Tasmania. Kingston Beach, Tasmania: Cloud Design. 109 pp.

Carr, Aaron. (2016). Tasmanian Tiger. New York, New York: AV² by Weigl. [2015 in Australia?]

Casey, R. (1994). A Tiger in Tasmania. Ashgrove, Queensland: Red Dragon Publishing. 57 pp.

Currie, Marzena. (2013). [Book review of The Dream of the Thylacine by Margaret Wild and Ron Brooks]. School Librarian 61(3): 169.

Darlison, Aleesah (text) and McGrath, Shane (illustrator). (2016). Stripes in the Forest: The Story of the Last Wild Thylacine. Big Sky Publishing. 32 pp.

Dying Breed. Dir. Jody Dwyer. Ambience Entertainment, 2008.

Chauncy, Nan. (1957). Tiger in the Bush. London: Oxford University Press. 172 pp.

Chauncy, Nan. (1971). Tiger in the Bush. London: Oxford University Press. 119 pp.

Crew, G. and Wilson, M. (2003). I saw nothing: the extinction of the thylacine. Victoria: Lothian Books.

Cromer, William "Bill". (2003). Thylacine conspiracy: Intrigue and Suspense in Tasmania. Springboro, Ohio: Just my Best Publishing. 246 pp. [Bill Cromer: "Reprinted 2003 in Tasmania with a different dust cover" (260 pp.?)]

D'Ath, Justin. (1996). Infamous. [Publisher?] ISBN: 9781875930036.

de Groen, Frances. (1980). The thylacine hunter. Quadrant 24(6): 67. [a poem]

Domico, Terry. (2005). The Last Thylacine. Washington & Strathfield, N. S. W: Turtleback Books, 232 pp. [Google Books Preview]

Evans, Gareth. (2005). The Thylacine Conspiracy. E & F Publications. 256 pp.

Ford, Catt and Kennedy, Sean. (2009). Dash and Dingo. Dreamspinner Press, 310 pp.

Frauca, Harry. (1969). Striped Wolf: A Bush Adventure. Melbourne: Heinemann. 109 pp.

Freeman, Carol. (2013). The last image: Julia Leigh's The hunter as film, [pagination?]. In: Johnston, Jay and Probyn-Rapsey, Fiona (eds.). Animal Death. Sydney University Press. 348 pp.

Gambles, Harriet and Gambles, Patrick. (2001). Tiger Trail - A Tasmanian Epic. Tasmania: Regal Publications.

Gordon, Victoria. (2010). Wolf in Tiger's Stripes. Gale, 252 pp. [Google Books]

Hardy, Maurice Athol. (2012). Queen Mallaegania and the Valley of the Demon: Plus Night of the Thylacine. Createspace. 168 pp. [relevant citation?]

Hartnett, Sonya. (1995). Sleeping Dogs. Viking Juvenile, 144 pp. [Available from Amazon]

Hartnett, Sonya. (2007). Stripes of the Sidestep Wolf. Candlewick Press, 208 pp.

The Hunter. Dir. Daniel Nettheim. Porchlight Films, 2011.

Irby, Kenneth Alan (lyrics) and Cameron, Rod (music). (1996). Our Tassie tiger song. Wynyard, Tasmania: Self published. 3 pp. ill.

Isham, Marion and Isham, Steve. (1996). Tasmanian Tiger. Bandicoot Books. 30 pp.

Jenyns, L, Tasmanian Tiger: The Mystery of the Thylacine, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart, pp. Broadsheet (1998) [Recorded Creative Work]

Jonsberg, Barry. (2011). Blacky Blasts Back: On the Tail of the Tassie Tiger. Allen & Unwin.

Le Lacheur, James. (2013). The Thylacine Diaries. Self published. 125 pp. [Kindle edition]

Leigh, Julia. (1999). The Hunter. London: Faber and Faber / New York: Penguin.

Martin, John (author) and Connors, Maria (illustrator). Who Knew Tasmanian Tigers Eat Apples! (Windy Mountain). Privately published? 288 pp.

Maynard, Leigh. (2004). How the Tasmanian Tiger got its Stripes. Scholastic. 32 pp.

McMillan, Dawn. (2013). Red Riding Hood and the Tassie Tiger. Publisher?

McPherson, Deb. (2011). READing & VIEWing. English in Australia 46(3): 106.

Meade, Rita. (2013). [Book review of The Dream of the Thylacine by Margaret Wild and Ron Brooks]. School Library Journal 59(7): 113.

NcNair, Leonie. (1991). Tyler the Tasmanian Tiger. Launceston, Tasmania: Holiday Link. 28 pp.

Nowra, Louis. (2012). Into That Forest. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen &​ Unwin. 172 pp.

Ordinans, Nicholas J. (2013). Where There Be Tygers. Self Published. 281 pp. [Available from Amazon]

Osborne, Lynda. (2015). Status: Presumed Extinct. Pegasus Pony. 260 pp. [Kindle edition]

Reed, Bill. (1982). Ihe. Hyland House.

Reed, Bill. (2015). Ihe. Dandenong, Victoria: Reed Independent.

Roberts, Beth. (1990). The Magic Waterfall. Kingston, Tasmania: Rainbow Books. 44 pp.

Rose, Heather. (1999). White Heart. Anchor Publishing, 312 pp.

Salmon, Michael. (1986). The Great Tasmanian Tiger Hunt. Templestowe, Victoria: Lamont Books. 28 pp.

Saxby, Maurice. (2011a). The Dream of the Thylacine by Margaret Wild and Ron Brooks. Magpies -Victoria Park 26(1): 10-11.

Saxby, Maurice. (2011b). [Book review of The Dream of the Thylacine by Margaret Wild and Ron Brooks]. Reading Time 55(2): 19.

Sheldon, Deborah. (2018). Thylacines. Severed Press. 122 pp. [Kindle edition]

Small, Mary. (1985). Grandfather's Tiger: Search for the Tassie Tiger. North Ryde, New South Wales: Methuen. 94 pp.

Small, Mary. (1989). Grandfather's Tiger: Search for the Tassie Tiger. Sydney, New South Wales: Collins. 104 pp.

Tuckey, Noel G. (2008). Thylacine Man. Glen Waverley, Vic: Sid Harta. 354 pp.

Tully The Tasmanian Tiger And Friends. No 2. Colouring-In and Activity Book. 64 pp.

Van Essen, Susanna. (1996). Denying extinction? The thylacine in children's literature. Reading Time 40(3 or 4): 12-15. [Abstract]

Wild, Margaret and Brooks, Ron. (2011). The Dream of the Thylacine. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen &​ Unwin [Children's?].

Wild, Margaret and Brooks, Ron. (2013). The Dream of the Thylacine. London : Frances Lincoln [distributor].

Wilson, Erle. (1953). Coorinna: A Novel of the Tasmanian Uplands. London: Deutsch. 160 pp.

Xi, Shen Shi. (2010). Black Swan Amethyst(Chinese Edition) : HEI TIAN E ZI SHUI JING. Linking Publishing Co. Ltd. 360 pp.

Tasmanian Tiger Track Colouring Book [2017]

Many other newspaper article citations can be viewed here.

Trove, an online archive of old Australian newspapers, can be searched for mentions of the thylacine. Here are just three possible suggestions of searches: Tiger

The description by Brehm (1895) was brought to my attention by The Quest for Thylacoleo forum member arca. It is indeed of historical significance.

The pdf file of (Ackman, 1976) was kindly supplied by Gareth Linnard.

The pdf file of (Sharland, 1938) was indirectly sourced via Gareth Linnard from Thylacine Man.

Zoochat member snowleopard pointed out (Block, 2017)

(Image by Surroundx)
"Artist unknown, date unknown (pre-2010). From the author's private stamp collection."
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