Bibliography on Extinction

By Branden Holmes (Surroundx) on July 10, 2012

Planet Earth is currently experiencing an extinction crisis, including whole genera, and, in at least one instance, an entire family. The following list of journal papers gives a much broader overview of the current extinction crisis than papers on individual taxa, which can be found in the relevant database entries.

Note: This list is a permanent work in progress since journal papers are constantly being published. All of the papers with hyperlinked titles are available online, as pdf files which can be downloaded for individual use. In addition, the abstracts of some further papers are available online. Suggestions of additions to this bibliography are welcome, and will be acknowledged.


Alroy, J. (2001). A multispecies overkill simulation of the end-Pleistocene megafaunal mass extinction. Science 292: 1893–1896.

Anonymous. (1997). Wildlife that are considered to be endangered, threatened, of special interest, extirpated, or extinct. Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife Inservice Note 178: 1-9.

Barnosky, A. D. (2008). Megafauna biomass tradeoff as a driver of Quaternary and future extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105: 11543–11548.

Barnosky, A. D., Koch, P. L., Feranec, R. S., Wing, S. L. and Shabel, A. B. (2004). Assessing the causes of late Pleistocene extinctions on the continents. Science 306: 70–75.

Braje, Tood J. and Erlandson, Jon M. (In Press, 2012). Human acceleration of animal and plant extinctions: A Late Pleistocene, Holocene, and Anthropocene continuum. Anthropocene. [abstract]

Brook, B., Bowman, D. M. J. S., Burney, D. A., Flannery, T. F., Gagan, M. K. et al. (2007). Would the Australian megafauna have become extinct if humans had never colonised the continent? Quaternary Science Reviews 26: 560–564.

Brook, B. W., Sodhi, N. S. and Bradshaw, C. J. A. (2008). Synergies among extinction drivers under global change. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23: 453–460.

Collen, Ben, Purvis, Andy and Mace, Georgina M. (2010). When is a species really extinct? Testing extinction inference from a sighting record to inform conservation assessment. Diversity and Distributions 16(5): 755-764. [Abstract]

Dewar, R. E. (1984). Recent extinctions in Madagascar: The loss of the subfossil fauna, pp. 574-593. In: Martin, P. S., and Klein, R. G. (eds.). Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution, Phoenix, Arizona: University of Arizona Press.
Diamond, Jared M. (1987). Extant unless proven extinct? Or, extinct unless proven extant? Conserv. Biol. 1(1): 77-79.

Dirzo, Rodolfo and Raven, Peter H. (2003). Global state of biodiversity and loss. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 28: 137–67.

Fisher, D. O. (2011). Cost, effort and outcome of mammal rediscovery: neglect of small species. Biological Conservation 144: 1712–1718.

Fisher, D. O. and Blomberg, S. P. (2012). Inferring Extinction of Mammals from Sighting Records, Threats, and Biological Traits. Conservation Biology 26: 57–67. [Abstract]

Greuter, W. (1995). Extinctions in Mediterranean areas, pp. 88-97. In: Lawton, J. H. and May, R. M. (eds.). Extinction Rates. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gurevitch, J. and Padilla, D. K. (2004a). Are invasive species a major cause of extinctions? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19(9): 470-474.

Gurevitch, J. and Padilla, D. K. (2004b). Response to Ricciardi. Assessing species invasions as a cause of extinction. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19(12): 620.

Hanski, I. and Ovaskainen, O. (2002). Extinction debt at extinction threshold. Conservation Biology 16: 666–673.

Harrison, R. D. (2000). Repercussions of El Nin˜o: drought causes of the extinction and the breakdown of mutualism in Borneo. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 267: 911– 915.

Hobbs, R. J. and Mooney, H. A. (1998). Broadening the extinction debate: population deletions and additions in California and western Australia. Conservation Biology 12: 271–283.

Hockey, P. (2001). African island extinctions. Africa: Birds & Birding 6(2): 32-40.

Jablonski, D. (2001). Lessons from the past: evolutionary impacts of mass extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98: 5393–5398.

Jablonski, D. and Chaloner, W. G. (1994). Extinctions in the fossil record. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 344: 11–17.

Koch, P. L. and Barnosky, A. D. (2006). Late Quaternary extinctions: state of the debate. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37: 215–250.

Koh, L. P., Dunn, R. R., Sodhi, N. S., Colwell, R. K., Proctor, H. C., Smith, V. S. (2004). Species coextinctions and the biodiversity crisis.Science 305: 1632– 1634.

Leakey, Richard C. and Lewin, Roger. (1995). The Sixth Extinction: Patterns of Life and the Future of Humankind. New York: Anchor Books. 271 pp.

van Loon, A. J. (2003). The dubious role of man in a questionable mass extinction. Earth-Science Reviews 62(1-2): 177-186. [Abstract]

MacPhee, R. D. E. (ed.). (1999). Extinctions in Near Time: Causes, Contexts, and Consequences. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

Myers, N. and Knoll, A. H. (2001). The biotic crisis and the future of evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98: 5389–5392.

Opler, P. A. (1977). The parade of passing species: a survey of extinctions in the U.S. The Science Teacher 44(1): ??-??.

Peters, S. E. and Foote, M. (2002). Determinants of extinction in the fossil record. Nature 416: 420–424.

Pimm, S. L., Jones, H. L. and Diamond, J. (1988). On the risk of extinction. American Naturalist 132: 757–785.

Pimm, S. L., Moulton, M. P., and Justice, L. J. (1994). Bird extinctions in the central Pacific. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 344: 27–33.

Pimm, S. L., Moulton, M. P., and Justice, L. J. (1995). Bird extinctions in the central Pacific, pp. 75-87. In: Lawton, J. H. and May, R. M. (eds.). Extinction Rates. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Regan, H. M., Lupia, R., Drinnan, A. N. and Burgman, M. A. (2001). The currency and tempo of extinction. American Naturalist 157: 1–10.

Ricciardi, A. (2004). Assessing species invasions as a cause of extinction. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19(12): 619.

Ricciardi, A. and Rasmussen, J. B. (1999). Extinction rates of North American freshwater fauna. Conservation Biology 13(5): 1220–1222.

Roberts, David L. et al. (2009). Identifying Anomalous Reports of Putatively Extinct Species and Why It Matters. Conservation Biology 24(1): 189–196.

Szabo JK, Khwaja N, Garnett ST, Butchart SHM. (2012). Global Patterns and Drivers of Avian Extinctions at the Species and Subspecies Level. PLoS ONE 7(10): e47080.

TEDESCO, P. A., BIGORNE, R., BOGAN, A. E., GIAM, X., JÉZÉQUEL, C. and HUGUENY, B. (2014), Estimating How Many Undescribed Species Have Gone Extinct. Conservation Biology 28: 1360-1370. [Abstract]

Thomas, C. D., Cameron, A., Green, R. E., Bakkenes, M., Beaumont, L. J. et al. (2004). Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427: 145-148.

Extinct Populations (i.e. local extinctions):

Allentoft, Morten E. et al. (2018). Centuries-Old DNA from an Extinct Population of Aesculapian Snake (Zamenis longissimus) Offers New Phylogeographic Insight. Diversity 10(1): 14. [Abstract]

Banks, Chris B. et al. (2017). Searching for the Grassland Earless Dragon 'Tympanocryptis pinguicolla' in Western Victoria. The Victorian Naturalist 134(6): 187-198. [Abstract]

Chelmick, David. (2009). Species Review 2: The Orange Spotted Emerald (Oxygastra curtisii). J. Br. Dragonfly Society 25(2): 76-93.

Fischer, JH, Hjorsvarsdottir, FO, Hiscock, JA, Debski, I, Taylor, GA, Wittmer, HU. (2017). Confirmation of the extinction of South Georgian diving petrels (Pelecanoides georgicus) on Enderby Island. Notornis 64(1): 48-51. [Abstract].

Fischer, Markus and Stöcklin, Jürg. (1997). Local Extinctions of Plants in Remnants of Extensively Used Calcareous Grasslands 1950-1985. Conservation Biology 11(3): 727-737. [Abstract]

Fisher, Robert and Ineich, Ivan. (2012). Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands. Oryx 46(2): 187-195. [Abstract]

Fukushima, Michio et al. (2011). Reconstructing Sakhalin Taimen Parahucho perryi Historical Distribution and Identifying Causes for Local Extinctions. Transactions of of the American Fisheries Society 140(1): 1-13. [Abstract]

Girdland-Flink, Linus et al. (2018). Genetic Insight into an Extinct Population of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in the Near East. Open Quaternary 4(1): 2.

Girling, Maureen A. (1984). A Little Ice Age extinction of a water beetle from Britain. Boreas 13(1): 1-4. [Abstract]

Gugolz, D. et al. (2008). Historical DNA reveals the phylogenetic position of the extinct Alpine lynx. Journal of Zoology 275(2): 201-208. [Abstract]

Konvicka, Martin et al. (2008). How too much care kills species: Grassland reserves, agri-environmental schemes and extinction of Colias myrmidone (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) from its former stronghold. Journal of Insect Conservation 12(5): 519-525. [Abstract]

Lilford, L. (1862). On the Extinction in Europe of the Common Francolin (Francolinus vulgaris,Steph.). Ibis 4: 352–356. [Abstract]

Maurer, G., Russell, D. G. D., Woog, F. and Cassey, P. (2010). The eggs of the extinct Egyptian population of White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 130(3): 208-214.

Mérit, X.; Manil, L.; Vila, R.; Wiemers, M. (2017). Inter-island differentiation of Leptotes (Cyclyrius) webbianus (Brullé, 1839) in the Canary Islands (Spain), with description of two new subspecies from La Palma and Gran Canaria (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterologia 45(179): 513-520.

Miskelly, Colin M. and Sagar, Paul M. (2008). Establishment and local extinction of fantails (Rhipidura fuliginosa) on the Snares Islands, New Zealand. Notornis 55(3): 170-171.

Murata, S. et al. (2004). Retrospective Estimation of Genetic Diversity of an Extinct Oriental White Stork (Ciconia boyciana) Population in Japan Using Mounted Specimens and Implications for Reintroduction Programs. Conservation Genetics 5(4): 553-560. [Abstract]

Olson, Storrs L. and Nieves-Rivera, A. M. (2010). Fossil evidence and probable extinction of the greater fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Chiroptera: Noctilionidae) on Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico. Mastozoología Neotropical 17: 167–170.

Rashid, M. E., Rahman, M. A. and Huda, M. K. (2017). Possibly lost orchid trasure of Bangladesh and their enumeration with conservation status. J. biodivers. conserve. bioresour. manag. 3(1): 65-83.

Raye, Lee. (2014). The early extinction date of the beaver (Castor fiber) in Britain. Historical Biology. [Abstract]

Safriel, U. N. (1980). Notes on the extinct population of the Bald Ibis Geronticus eremita in the Syrian desert. Ibis 122(1): 82-88. [Abstract]

Tennyson, Alan J. D. et al. (2014). Kea (Nestor notabilis) – another North Island human-caused extinction. Notornis 61(3): 174-176.

Thibault, Jean-Claude and Meyer, Jean-Yves. (2001). Contemporary extinctions and population declines of the monarchs (Pomarea spp.) in French Polynesia, South Pacific. Oryx 35(1): 73-80. [Abstract]

Vaira, M. (2003). Report of a breeding aggregation extirpation of an endemic marsupial frog, Gastrotheca christiani, in Argentina. Froglog 60: 3.

van Daele P. and Leonard P. M. (2001). The status of Great Crested Grebes Podiceps cristatus in Zambia. Zambia Bird Rep. 1999: 88-90. [very few left, if not already extinct]

Violani, Carlo G. and Massa, Bruno. (1993). Extinction of the Andalusian Hemipode Turnix s. sylvatica (Desf.) in the Mediterranean regionBulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 113225-229.

Young, Frank N. (1951). Vanishing and Extinct Colonies of Tree Snails Liguus fasciatus, in the Vicinity of Miami, Florida. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology. University of Michigan. 531:1-21.

Neurobasis chinensis


Honegger, R. E. (1981). List of amphibians and reptiles either known or thought to have become extinct since 1600. Biol. Conserv. 19: 141-158.

Stuart, Simon N. et al. (2004). Status and Trends of Amphibian Declines and Extinctions Worldwide. Sciencexpress, 14 October, 1-5.

Wake, D. B. and Vredenburg, V. T. (2008). Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction? A view from the world of amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105: 11466–11473.


Barnosky, A. D., Koch, P. L., Feranec, R. S., Wing, S. L. and Shabel, A. B. (2004). Assessing the causes of Late Pleistocene extinctions on thecontinents. Science 306: 70–75.

Benson, C.W. (1972). Skins of extinct or nearly extinct birds in Cambridge. Bull. Brit. OrnClub 92: 59-58.

Boev, Z. (2003). Specimens of extinct and threatened birds in the collections of the National Museum of Natural History in Sofía, Bulgaria.Bull. Brit. Orn. Club 123A: 234-245.

Boyer, AG. (2008). Extinction patterns in the avifauna of the Hawaiian islands. Diversity and Distributions 14: 509-517.

Butchart, Stuart. (2007). Birds to find: a review of ‘lost’, obscure and poorly known African bird species. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 14(2): 139-157.

Butchart, S. H. M.; Collar, N. J.; Crosby, M. J. & Tobias, J. A. (2005). Asian enigmas: Lost and poorly known birds: targets for birders in Asia. Birding Asia 3: 41-49.

Butchart, S. H. M., Stattersfield, A. J. & Brooks, T. M.(2006). Going or gone: defining ‘Possibly Extinct’species to give a truer picture of recent extinctions.Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. 126 Suppl. 7–24.

Butchart, Stuart, Stattersfield, Alison J. and Collar, Nigel J. (2006). How many bird extinctions have we prevented? Oryx 40(3): 266-278.

Cheke, Anthony S. (2001). Booby Sula colonies in the Mascarene area (Indian Ocean):  extinctions, myths and colour morphs. Bull. Br. Orn. Club 121: 71-80.

Dean, W. R. J. and Bond, W. J. (1994). Apparent avian extinctions from islands in a man-made lake, South Africa. Ostrich 65: 7-13.

Duncan, Richard P., Boyer, Alison G. and Blackburn, Tim M. (2013). Magnitude and variation of prehistoric bird extinctions in the Pacific. PNAS March 25, 2013. doi:10.1073/pnas.1216511110 [Abstract]

Fisher, C. T. (1981). Specimens of extinct, endangered or rare birds in the Merseyside County Museums, Liverpool. Bull. Brit. Orn. Club 101, 276-285.

Fuller, E. (1987). Extinct Birds. Viking/Rainbird, London, 256 pp.

Greenway, J. C. (1967). Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World. American Committee for International WildLife Protection, Special Publication no 13, 2nd edn.Dover Publications, New York.

Günther, A. and Newton, E. (1879). The extinct birds of Rodriguez. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Societyof London 168 (extra vol.): 423–437.

Hille, S. and Thiollay, J. M. (2000). The imminent extinction of the Kites Milvus milvus fasciicauda and M.m. migrans on the Cape Verde Islands. Bird Cons. Int. 10: 361-369.

Howes, C.A. (1969). A survey of extinct and nearly extinct birds in the Royal Albert Memorial Museum, Exeter. Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl. 89, 89-92.

Inchausti, P. and Weimerskich, H. (2001). Risks of decline and extinction of the endangered Amsterdam Albatross and the projected impact of longline fisheries. Biol. Conserv. 100: 377-386.

James, Helen F. (1991). The contribution of fossils to knowledge of Hawaiian birds. Acta XX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici, pp. 420-424.

Jessop, L. and Stobbart, R. H. (2002). Specimens of bird species now threatened, or made extinct in recent times, in the collections of the Hancock Museum, Newcastle upon Tyne. Trans. nat. Hist. Soc. Northumbria 62, 123-152.

Knox, A.G., & M.P. Walters. (1994). Extinct and endangered birds in the collections of The Natural History Museum. Brit. Orn. Club Occ. Publ. 1, Tring.

Manne LL, Brooks TM, and Pimm SL (1999) Relativerisk of extinction of passerine birds on continents andislands. Nature 399, 258–261.

Milberg, Per and Tyrberg, Tommy. (1993). Naive birds and noble savages - A review of man-caused phehistoric extinctions of island birds. Ecography 16: 229-250. [Abstract]

Moniz, Jadelyn J. (1997). The Role of Seabirds in Hawaiian Subsistence: Implications for Interpreting Avian Extinction and Extirpation in Polynesia. Asian Perspectives 36(1): 27-50.

Neufeldt, I. A. (1978). Extinct birds in the collection of the Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In: Systematics and biology of rare and less known birds. Trudy Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR76, 101-110. (In Russian).

Pimm, S. L. and Askins, R. A. (1995). Forest losses predict birdextinctions in eastern North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 92: 9343–9347.

Pimm, Stuart L., Moulton, M. P. and Justice, L. J. (1994). Bird extinctions in the central Pacific. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B 344: 27-33.

Pimm, S, Raven, P, Peterson, A, Sekercioglu, ÇH & Ehrlich, PR. (2006). Human impacts on the rates of recent, present, and future bird extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences103: 10941.

Roberts, David L., Elphick, Chris S. and Reed, J. Michael. (2009). Identifying Anomalous Reports of Putatively Extinct Species and Why It Matters. Conservation Biology 24(1): 189–196.

Russell, Gareth J. et al. (1998). Present and Future Taxonomic Selectivity in Bird and Mammal Extinctions. Conservation Biology 12(6): 1365-1376.

Szabo JK, Khwaja N, Garnett ST, Butchart SHM. (2012). Global Patterns and Drivers of Avian Extinctions at the Species and Subspecies Level. PLoS ONE 7(10): e47080. 

Tobias, Joseph A., Butchart, Stuart H. M. and Collar, Nigel J. (2006). Lost and found: a gap analysis for the Neotropical avifauna. Neotropical Birding 2006: 4-22.


Burkhead, Noel M. (2012). Extinction Rates in North American Freshwater Fishes, 1900-2010. BioScience 62(9): 798-808. [Abstract]

Comeros-Raynal, Mia T. et al. (2012). The Likelihood of Extinction of Iconic and Dominant Herbivores and Detrivores of Coral Reefs: The Parrotfishes and SurgeonfishesPLoS ONE 7(7): e39825.

Contreras-Balderas, Salvador et al. (2003). Freshwater fish at risk or extinct in Mexico: A checklist and review. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 12: 241–251.

Harrison, I.J. and Stiassny, M.L.J. (1999). The Quiet Crisis. A preliminary listing of the freshwater fishes of the world that are Extinct or “Missing in Action". In: R.D.E. MacPhee (ed.) Extinctions in Near Time, pp. 271-331. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.

Miller, Robert R., Williams, James D. and Williams, Jack E. (1989). Extinctions of North American Fishes During the Past Century. Fisheries 14(6): 22-38.

Williams, Jack E. and Miller, Robert R. (1990). Conservation status of the North American fish fauna in fresh water. Journal of Fish Biology 37(Supplement A): 79-85.


Asquith, Adam. (1995). Alien Species and the Extinction Crisis of Hawaii's Invertebrates. Endangered Species UPDATE 12(6): 8 pp.

Cheong, Loong Fah. (2011). Insect conservation in Singapore - An assessment, pp. 29-39. Proceedings of Nature Society, Singapore’s Conference on ‘Nature Conservation for a Sustainable Singapore’ – 16th October 2011.

Colwell, Douglas D. et al. (2009). Oestrid flies: eradication and extinct versus biodiversity. Trends in Parasitology 25(11): 500-504. [Abstract]

Dunn, Robert R. (2005). Modern insect extinctions, the neglected majority. Conservation Biology 19(4): 1030-1036.

Jevanandam, N., Goh, A. G. R. and Corlett, R. T. (2013). Climate warming and the potential extinction of fig wasps, the obligate pollinators of figs. Biol Lett 9: 20130041.


Cardillo, Marcel and Bromham, Lindell. (2001). Body Size and Risk of Extinction in Australian Mammals. Conservation Biology 15(5): 1435-1440.

Carrasco, M. A., Barnosky, A. D. and Graham, R. W. (2009). Quantifying the Extent of North American Mammal Extinction Relative to the Pre-Anthropogenic Baseline. PLoS ONE 4(12): e8331.

Ceballos, G & Ehrlich, PR. (2002). Mammal population losses and the extinction crisis. Science 296: 904-907.

Cupper, M.L. & Gallagher S.J., (2007). Climate change or human impact? Australia's megafaunal extinction, Selwyn Symposium of the GSA Victoria Division, September 2007, Geological Society of Australia Extended Abstracts No. 79, 63pp.

Glorvigen P, Andreassen HP, Ims RA. (2013). Local and Regional Determinants of Colonisation-Extinction Dynamics of a Riparian Mainland-Island Root Vole Metapopulation. PLoS ONE 8(2): e56462.

Heaton, Timothy H. (1990). Quaternary Mammals of the Great Basin: Extinct Giants, Pleistocene Relicts, and Recent Immigrants, pp. 422-465. In: Ross, R. M., and Allmon, W. D. (eds.). Causes of Evolution: a Paleontological Perspective. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press.

Helgen, Kristofer M. and McFadden, T. L. (2002). Recently extinct mammals in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Breviora 510: 1-13.

Jernvall, J. and Wright, P. C. (1998). Diversity components of impending primate extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95: 11279–11283.

Johnson, Chris. (2007). Australia's Mammal Extinctions: A 50,000-Year History. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. 288 pp.

Liow, L. H., Fortelius, M., Bingham, E., Lintulaakso, K., Mannila, H. et al. (2008). Higher origination and extinction rates in larger mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105: 6097–6102.

Russell, Gareth J. et al. (1998). Present and Future Taxonomic Selectivity in Bird and Mammal Extinctions. Conservation Biology 12(6): 1365-1376.


Carlton, J. T., Geller, J. B., Reaka-Kudla, M. L. and Norse, E. A. (1999). Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 525–538.

Dulvy, N. K., Sadovy, Y. and Reynolds, J. D. (2003). Extinction vulnerability in marine populations. Fish and Fisheries 4: 25–64.

Roberts, C. M. and Hawkins, J. P. (1999). Extinction risk in thesea. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14: 241–246.


Akiyama, Y. (2007). Factors causing extinction of a freshwater pearl mussel, Margaritifera laevis in Japan (Bivalvia: Unionoida). Laboratory of Environmental Medicine and Informatics, Division of Bioscience, Graduate school of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University.

Asquith, Adam. (1995). Alien Species and the Extinction Crisis of Hawaii's Invertebrates. Endangered Species UPDATE 12(6): 8 pp.

bij de Vaate, A. and van Eerden, M. R. (1990). Short term colonization and subsequent extinction of a population of Nagel Pfeiffer (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia: Hydrobiidae) in the Ijsselmeer the Netherlands. Basteria 54(4-6): 217-226.

Bogan, Arthur E. (1992). Freshwater bivalve extinctions: search for a cause. (Abstract) American Zoologist 32(5): 175a.

Bogan, Arthur E. (1993). Freshwater bivalve extinctions (Mollusca: Unionoida): A search for causes. American Zoologist 33(6): 599-609. [Abstract]

Bogan, Arthur E. (1997). The silent extinction. American Paleontologist 5(1): 2-4.

Bogan, Arthur E. (2006). Chapter 30: Conservation and extinction of the freshwater molluscan fauna of North America, pp. 373-383. In: Sturm, C. F., Pearce, T. A. and Valdes, A. (eds.). The Mollusks: A Guide to Their Study, Collection, and Preservation. American Malacological Society, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, Universal Publishers, Boca Raton,
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Bogan, Arthur E. and Davis, G. M. (1990). Report No. 3: the Unionidae of Pennsylvania: rare, endangered, extinct. Contract for Wild Resources Conservation Fund: State of Pennsylvania Unpaginated, 16 pp.

Bogan, Arthur E. and Davis, G. M. (1992). Report No. 4: the Unionidae of Pennsylvania: rare, endangered, extinct. Contract for Wild Resources Conservation Fund: State of Pennsylvania Unpaginated, 10 p.

Bouchet, P. (1990). Extinction et conservation des espèces dans le monde tropical: quel avenir pour les Mollusques? Cahiers d’ Outre-Mer 42(172): 475-487.

Bouchet, P. and Abdou, A. (2001). Recent extinct land snails (Euconulidae) from the Gambier Islands with remarkable apertural barriers. Pacific Science 55(2): 121-127.

Chiba, Satoshi, I. Okochi, T. Ohbayashi, D. Miura, H. Mori, K. Kimura, and S. Wada. (2009). Effects of habitat history and extinction selectivity on species-richness patterns of an island land snail fauna. Journal of Biogeography 36: 1913–1922.

Clarke, B., J. Murray, and M. S. Johnson. (1984)The extinction of endemic species by a program of biological control. Pacific Science 38:97104.

Coote, Trevor. (2007). Partulids on Tahiti: Differential persistence of a minority of endemic taxa among relict populations. American Malacological Bulletin 22(1):83-87. [Abstract]

Coote, Trevor and Loève, Éric. (2003)From 61 species to five: Endemic tree snails of the Society Islands fall prey to an ill-judged biological control program. Oryx 37:9196. [Abstract]

Cowie, R. H. (1992). Evolution and extinction of Partulidae, endemic Pacific island land snails. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 335: 167-191.

Cowie, R. H. and Cook, R. P. (2001). Extinction or survival: partulid tree snails in American Samoa. Biodiversity and Conservation 10(2): 143-159.

Cushman, J. (1995). Freshwater mussels facing mass extinction. New York Times 3 October 1995.

Duncan, J. R. and Lockwood, J. L. (2001). Spatial homogenization of the aquatic fauna of Tennessee: extinction and invasion following land use change and habitat alteration. Pp. 245-257 in Lockwood, Julie L.; McKinney, Michael L. (eds). Biotic homogenization. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, Boston etc. i-x, 1-289.

Haag, W. R. (2009). Past and future patterns of freshwater mussel extinctions in North America during the Holocene, pp. 107-128.In: Turvey, Samuel (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford University Press. 320 pp.

Hadfield, Michael G. (1986). Extinction in Hawaiian Achatinelline snails. Malacologia 27: 67-81.

Hadfield, Michael G., Miller, Stephen E. and Carwile, Anne H. (1993). The decimation of endemic Hawai'ian tree snails by alien predators. Amer. Zool. 33(6): 610-622. [Abstract]

Holland, Brenden S. and Hadfield, Michael G. (2007). Molecular Systematics of the Endangered O‘ahu Tree Snail Achatinella mustelina: Synonymization of Subspecies and Estimation of Gene Flow between Chiral Morphs. Pacific Science 61(1): 53–66.

Lee, Taehwan et al. (2009). Moorean tree snail survival revisited: a multi-island genealogical perspective. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 204.

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About Branden Holmes
I am a freelance writer with a special interest in conservation biology.

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