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|This is the rough package of the translation of the article written by Sylvain Ruaud from the SFIB in France.
I will revert to point out what is wrong in the translation in my opinion. In the meantime thks to the owners to correct whatever has to be corrected.
One century of large Irises in France
Irises and Bulbous nÂ° 128 p 6-9. (1998). Sylvain Ruaud.
The twentieth century which is completed was marked, in France and in the world, by an extraordinary development of the hybrid irises, and particularly of those which one describes as â€œlargeâ€, because it is those which have the floral stems highest.
So today they are the hybrideurs of thePlain ones who hold the top of the paving stone, that was not always the case. France, indeed, held its row in this competition well, during this century.
Until the end of the Thirties, one can say that France was the country of the irises. In this matter, only the English competed with it. The Americans were only at their beginning, generally with plants from France.
At the beginning of this century, the Vilmorin house obtained the first tetraploid irises, larger, more vigorous than the diploÃ¯des. â€œIsolineâ€ (pink chamois/), â€œTamerlanâ€ (lavender bronzed) and especially â€œAlcazarâ€ (purple), in 1910, marked their time and obtained a deserved world success. â€œDejazetâ€, another Vilmorin iris, groove and garnet-red, with the genetic potential rich person was used by almost all the hybrideurs of the time. Other great successes like â€œPinelle Directorâ€ (1932) or â€œManor of Launayâ€ (1936) mark the end of the Vilmorin era.
â€œNÃªnÃ©â€ (Cayeux 1928)
At the same time the houses Denis and Millet were also famous. Then Ferdinand Cayeux came. This hybridizor made considerable progresses. One owes him of the irises whose celebrity was world wide and whose genes appear in a very great number of the current varieties.
Let us quote, among such an amount of others, â€œTitâ€ (1928), one of the first amoena, â€œDÃ©putÃ© Nomblotâ€ (1929), one of the ancestors of the yellows, with his junior â€œRain by Goldâ€ (1931), â€œMarquitaâ€ (1931), ivory, â€œJean Cayeuxâ€ (1931) color of honey and founder of the line of brown, chamois, and bronzes, â€œMrs. Maurice Lassaillyâ€ (1931), a neglecta relative of a great number of two-tone, â€œMrs. Louis Aureauâ€ (1934), plicata pink purple, founder of the line of the plicata of Schreinerâ€¦
At the time, the Cayeux catalogue was written in English and was primarily addressed, therefore, with Americans. But the war of 1939 was going to put a term at this French hegemony and to leave the place to the American era.
During twenty years, France leaves the first world rank and is satisfied to cultivate these prewar varieties and to import the American innovations.
Rene Cayeux does not practise hybridization. It is necessary to await the work of Jean Cayeux so that new French cultivars makes their appearance as from 1945.
Among its more great successes, it is necessary to quote â€œPrincess Wolkonskiâ€, very popular â€œMrs. FranÃ§ois Debatâ€ (1957) pink, still quite present in the gardens. He is currently proposed by certain catalogues of VPC general practitioners. The variegata â€œGay dogâ€ (1958), is shown also everywhere, as â€œDances of the Fireâ€ (1960) which one can describe as beautiful brown.
The activity of hybridor of Jean Cayeux will not stop before end of the year 80, but the situation, since 1960, is not any more the same one. Thanks to him, France finds an enviable place in the world of the irises.
- The return to the professionalsâ€¦
Little by little one starts to find French irises in the catalogues. Those of Jean Cayeux of course. Let us quote â€œStuntmanâ€ (1969) variegata yellow and mauve, â€œOf Provenceâ€ (1977), a garnet-red brilliance plicata, and in the series of the irises introduced in 1978, â€œFalbalaâ€ (blue means, bores red), â€œKarinkaâ€ (throat of pigeon), â€œSnow of Mayâ€ (white, bores red), and especially â€œCondottiereâ€ (mauve two let us tons) parent abundantly used everywhere in the world and present in several catalogues of the USA. One of its last achievements will be famous â€œthe Trade windsâ€ (1987) blue with the largely marked sepals of white.
Pierre Anfosso, with â€œLorenzaccio de Medicisâ€, bitone brown-red, proved, as of 1978, quote ' it had all qualities of a large hybrid. Since, it spent each year on the market of the remarkable irises: â€œSleepless nightâ€ (1980), pure white, â€œEcho of Franceâ€ (1984), superb amoena yellow, â€œCarmen Xâ€ (1985), an orange original, â€œBar of Nightâ€ (1987) â€œblackâ€, â€œBaroccoâ€ (1988), plicata crimson, â€œSoft Franceâ€ (1988), blue slate with red barb, â€œCitizenâ€ (1989) exceptional mixture of raspberry and beige, â€œVan Gogh Foundationâ€ (1990), amoena very required apricot, even with the United States, â€œMyraâ€ (1996) variegata chamois and crimson-black.
To beginning of the year 90, Lawrence Ransom launches out in its turn in professional hybridization. Very eclectic, it operates in all the categories, of the large standards to the dwarves miniature and the arilbreds. In the field of the large ones, which interests us today, it produced pretty plants as â€œComic operaâ€ (1992), clear yellow with the centered sepals of white, â€œDesirisâ€ (1994), a pink out of the commun run, already very widespread, â€œMarie Kalfayanâ€ (1995) or â€œClaude-Louis Gayrardâ€ (1996) in these tones of mauve so expensive to the obtainor. The originality of its research, the modernity of its flowers, made known it in addition to the Atlantic like one of the hybrids of the future.
One can practically speak about professionalism in connection with Jean SÃ©gui, who collects a number impressing of varieties and had fun with hybrider, not without plume, since its superb old iris gold â€œDoctor Goldâ€ (1985) was regarded as the best late variety with the contest of Florence 1986. Previously varieties like â€œTrapelâ€ (1982), blue harms, and â€œthe Beautiful Audeâ€ (1982), pink, were a true popular success. â€œGold rushâ€ (1992) and â€œVia Domitiaâ€ (1993) are original successes.
Finally in 96, a new professional, Christian Lanthelme recorded three varieties of his vintage.
â€¦ and amateurs
Among amateurs themselves, AndrÃ© Brun creates in 1978 his purple purple â€œLucinouâ€. Very recently, Jean Peyrard put on the market a pretty iris at spurs, â€œOstrogothâ€ (1994).
Others, like Igor Fedoroff, as of the Seventies, hybrident and obtain interesting varieties, which were never recorded, although they had deserved it: â€œAygadeâ€, mauve periwinkle with red barb, â€œSands Moneyâ€, infused apricot of wood-of-pink, â€œPrince Vaillantâ€, amoena blue.
Bernard Lecaplain had also the happy hand in particular with â€œthe Niagaraâ€, â€œCartonâ€ or â€œFijiâ€ (presented this year to critÃ©rium of Orleans).
But there are undoubtedly many other talented amateurs, who preserve anonymityâ€¦
Does France return to the first rank?
Undoubtedly not: the United States is and will remain in the front. But at the time when purchasers of iris are a little everywhere in the world, including at the fine bottom of the Central Asia, our country gathers a good part of the best hybridizers.
We will be able to realize it to the exposure FRANCIRIS 2000 which will take place with the Gardens of BrocÃ©liande, close to Rennes. The greatest possible number of fifty last years French varieties, recorded or not, will be presented to curiosity and admiration of the amateurs. It will be the first time that the French production will be thus gathered, and that will show the vitality and the originality of the production of iris in our country.
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