The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database Extinct Birds: Zapornia sandwichensis

Scientific Name: Zapornia sandwichensis

Species Authority: Gmelin, 1789:717

Synonym/s: Porzana sandwichensis Gmelin, 1789:717; Porzana sandwichensis sandwichensis Gmelin, 1789:717; Pennula sandwichensis Gmelin, 1789:717; Rallus sandwichensis Gmelin, 1789:717; Pennula wilsoni Finsch, 1898:77; Porzana millsi (Dole, 1878:54); Porzana sandwichensis millsi Gmelin, 1789:717; Porzana millei (Dole, 1878:54); Pennula millei (Dole, 1878:54); Pennula ecaudata Wilson & Evans, 1894:171

Common Name: Hawaiian rail, Hawaiian crake, Sandwich rail

Locality: Hawaiian Islands, USA

Last Record: 1860's (1864 or later; Hume & Walters, 2012:103-104); 1884 (Rothschild, 1907)

IUCN status: Extinct

TSE forum thread:

Taxonomic Notes
Sometimes considered as two different subspecies (sandwichensis and millsi) (e.g. Hume & Walters, 2012:103-104), millsi is considered a synonym by (Taylor, 1998), a taxonomic opinion followed here.

There are seven extant museum specimens (Olson, 1999).

Syntype: RMNH 87450

Original Scientific Description:

Gmelin, Johann Friedrich (1789). [Description of Porzana sandwichensis]. In: Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (13th ed.) 1, part II: 717. Georg Emanuel Beer, Lipsiae [Leipzig]

Species Bibliography:

BirdLife International. (2012). Zapornia sandwichensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. ( Downloaded on 26 July 2014.

Ehrlich, Paul R., Dobkin, David S. and Wheye, Darryl. (1992). Birds in Jeopardy: The Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. 259 pp.

Elphick, Chris S., Roberts, David L. and Reed, J. Michael. (2010). Estimated dates of recent extinctions for North American and Hawaiian birds. Biological Conservation 143: 617-624.

Finsch, O. (1898). On the so-called "Sandwich Rail" in the Leiden Museum. Notes of the Leyden Museum 20: 77-80.

Fuller, Errol. (1988). Extinct Birds. New York: Facts on File Publications. 256 pp.

Greenway, J. C. (1967). Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World. New York: Dover Publications.

Henshaw, H. W. (1903). Birds of the Hawaiian Islands. Being a complete list of the birds of the Hawaiian Possessions with notes on their habits. Honolulu: Thos G. Thrum.

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser.

Jansen, Justin J. F. J. and Roe, Richard S. (2013). Tracking Cook’s third voyage (1776–79) Hawaiian Rails Porzana sandwichensis, with some comments on their type status. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 133(1): 59-67.

Latham, J. A. (1871-85). General synopsis of birds, volume 2. London: J. Van Voorst.

Manning, A. (1982). Hawaiian and Laysan Rails: S. B. Dole corresponds with A. Agassiz. Elpaio 42: 87.

Olson, Storrs L. (1999). Laysan Rail (Porzana palmeri), Hawaiian Rail (Porzana sandwichensis). The birds of North America Number 426.

Olson, Stors L. and James, Helen F. (1991). Descriptions of thirty-two new species of birds from the Hawaiian Islands: Part 1. Non-passeriformes. Ornithological Monographs 45: 1-88.

Pease, W. H. (1862). Notice of a wingless bird or moho, and a raven found in the island of Hawaii. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 30(1): 145.

Perkins, R. C. L. (1903). Vertebrata, pp. 365-466. In: Sharp, D. (ed.). Fauna Hawaiiensis or the zoology of the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islands. Volume 1, part 4. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Roberts, D. L. and Jarić, I. (2016). Inferring extinction in North American and Hawaiian birds in the presence of sighting uncertainty. PeerJ 4: e2426.

Slikas, Beth, Olson, Storrs L. and Fleischer, Robert C. (2002). Rapid, independent evolution of flightlessness in four species of Pacific Island rails (Rallidae): an analysis based on mitochondrial sequence data. Journal of Avian Biology 33: 5-14.

Stresemann, Erwin. (1950). Birds collected during Capt. James Cook's last expedition (1776-1780). Auk 67(1): 66-88.

Taylor, B. (1998). Rails: a guide to the rails, crakes, gallinules and coots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Wilson, S. and Evans, A. H. (1890-99). Aves Hawaiiensis: the birds of the Sandwich Islands. London: R. H. Porter.

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