|Scientific Name: Achatinella apexfulva|
Author: Dixon, 1789
Synonym/s: See Notes
Common Name/s: Dusky-apex Oahu tree-snail
Locality: Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, USA
Last Record: April 2011 or before (Crowl, 2011) (in captivity); 1985 in the wild?
IUCN status: Critically Endangered
TSE Forum thread: http://extinctanimals.proboards.com/thread/15729/achatinella...
|This species was believed to be extinct in the wild, with only a single individual in captivity as of March 2011:|
"The lab has nine of the ten remaining Achatinella species, though that number is likely to drop to eight in the near future: The lab’s lone Achatinella apexfulva is probably the last survivor. No one has seen it in the wild for more than a decade."
(Crowl, 2011[: third page of story])
Cowie et al. (2017) list the species' conservation status as "EX?", implying that the presumed endling had passed away sometime since March 2011. However, confirmation is needed.
Achatinella apexfulva has 14 synonyms:
Achatinella lugubris Chemnitz
Achatinella pica Swainson
Achatinella vespertina Baldwin
Achatinella apicata var. alba Sykes
Achatinella apicata Newcomb
Achatinella swiftii var. Newcomb
Achatinella aptycha Pfeiffer
Helix Avex Fulva Dixon
Turbo apexfulva Dixon, 1798 (original combination?)
Turbo lugubris Chemnitz
Monodonta seminigra Lamarck
Bulimus seminiger Mke
Apex gulickii Smith
Apex lilaceus Gulick.
Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. pp. 378. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Cowie, Robert H., Régnier, Claire, Fontaine, Benoît, and Bouchet, Philippe. (2017). Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41.
Cowie Robert H., Héros Virginie, Yeung Norine W. and Hayes Kenneth A. (2016). Annotated catalogue of types of Hawaiian land and fresh-water snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, with lectotype designations. Zoosystema 38(2): 245-266.
Crowl, Janice. (2011). Kahuli Homecoming. Hana Hou! 14(2): [pagination?].
Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hadfield, Michael and Hadway, L. (1996). Achatinella apexfulva. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. (http://www.iucnredlist.org). Downloaded on 19 September 2011.
IUCN. 1990. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Price, M. R., Sischo, D., Pascua, M. and Hadfield, M. G. (2015). Demographic and genetic factors in the recovery or demise of ex situ populations following a severe bottleneck in fifteen species of Hawaiian tree snails. PeerJ 3: e1406.
Régnier, Claire, Fontaine, Benoît and Bouchet, Philippe. (2009). Not Knowing, Not Recording, Not Listing: Numerous Unnoticed Mollusk Extinctions. Conservation Biology 23(5): 1214-1221.
Welch, d'Alté Aldridge. (1942). Distribution and variation of the Hawaiian tree snail Achatinella apexfulva Dixon in the Koolau Range, Oahu. Smithson. Misc. Collect. 103: 1-236, + 12 plates.
Wells, S.M., Pyle, R.M. and Collins, N.M. (compilers) 1983. The IUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.